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Catalyst::Authentication::Credential::OpenID - OpenID credential for Catalyst::Plugin::Authentication framework.




<B>NBB>: The extensions were previously configured under the key extension_args. They are now configured under extensions. extension_args is no longer honored.

As previously noted, EXTENSIONS TO OPENID, I have not tested the extensions. I would be grateful for any feedback or, better, tests.


The problems encountered by failed OpenID operations have always been fatals in the past. This is unexpected behavior for most users as it differs from other credentials. Authentication errors here are no longer fatal. Debug/error output is improved to offset the loss of information. If for some reason you would prefer the legacy/fatal behavior, set the configuration variable errors_are_fatal to a true value.



 use Catalyst qw/

Somewhere in myapp.conf-

     default_realm   openid
                 class   OpenID
                 ua_class   LWP::UserAgent

Or in your myapp.yml if you’re using YAML instead-

   default_realm: openid
         class: OpenID
         ua_class: LWP::UserAgent

In a controller, perhaps Root::openid-

 sub openid : Local {
      my($self, $c) = @_;

      if ( $c->authenticate() )
          $c->flash(message => "You signed in with OpenID!");
          $c->res->redirect( $c->uri_for(/) );
          # Present OpenID form.

And a Template to match in

 <form action="[% c.uri_for(/openid) %]" method="GET" name="openid">
 <input type="text" name="openid_identifier" class="openid" />
 <input type="submit" value="Sign in with OpenID" />


This is the <B>thirdB> OpenID related authentication piece for Catalyst. The first X Catalyst::Plugin::Authentication::OpenID by Benjamin Trott X was deprecated by the second X Catalyst::Plugin::Authentication::Credential::OpenID by Tatsuhiko Miyagawa X and this is an attempt to deprecate both by conforming to the newish, at the time of this module’s inception, realm-based authentication in Catalyst::Plugin::Authentication.

 1. Catalyst::Plugin::Authentication::OpenID
 2. Catalyst::Plugin::Authentication::Credential::OpenID
 3. Catalyst::Authentication::Credential::OpenID

The benefit of this version is that you can use an arbitrary number of authentication systems in your Catalyst application and configure and call all of them in the same way.

Note that both earlier versions of OpenID authentication use the method authenticate_openid(). This module uses authenticate() and relies on you to specify the realm. You can specify the realm as the default in the configuration or inline with each authenticate() call; more below.

This module functions quite differently internally from the others. See Catalyst::Plugin::Authentication::Internals for more about this implementation.


$c->authenticate({},‘‘your_openid_realm’’); Call to authenticate the user via OpenID. Returns false if authorization is unsuccessful. Sets the user into the session and returns the user object if authentication succeeds.

You can see in the call above that the authentication hash is empty. The implicit OpenID parameter is, as the 2.0 specification says it SHOULD be, <B>openid_identifierB>. You can set it anything you like in your realm configuration, though, under the key openid_field. If you call authenticate() with the empty info hash and no configured openid_field then only openid_identifier is checked.

It implicitly does this (sort of, it checks the request method too)-

 my $claimed_uri = $c->req->params->{openid_identifier};
 $c->authenticate({openid_identifier => $claimed_uri});

Catalyst::Authentication::Credential::OpenID->new() You will never call this. Catalyst does it for you. The only important thing you might like to know about it is that it merges its realm configuration with its configuration proper. If this doesn’t mean anything to you, don’t worry.


Currently the only supported user class is Catalyst::Plugin::Authentication::User::Hash.
See Net::OpenID::VerifiedIdentity for details.


Catalyst authentication is now configured entirely from your application’s configuration. Do not, for example, put Credential::OpenID into your use Catalyst ... statement. Instead, tell your application that in one of your authentication realms you will use the credential.

In your application the following will give you two different authentication realms. One called members which authenticates with clear text passwords and one called openid which uses... uh, OpenID.

    ( name => "MyApp",
      "Plugin::Authentication" => {
          default_realm => "members",
          realms => {
              members => {
                  credential => {
                      class => "Password",
                      password_field => "password",
                      password_type => "clear"
                          store => {
                              class => "Minimal",
                              users => {
                                  paco => {
                                      password => "l4s4v3n7ur45",
              openid => {
                  credential => {
                      class => "OpenID",
                      store => {
                          class => "OpenID",
                      consumer_secret => "Dont bother setting",
                      ua_class => "LWP::UserAgent",
                      # whitelist is only relevant for LWPx::ParanoidAgent
                      ua_args => {
                          whitelisted_hosts => [qw/ localhost /],
                      extensions => [
                           required => email,
                           optional => fullname,nickname,timezone,

This is the same configuration in the default Catalyst configuration format from Config::General.

 name   MyApp
     default_realm   members
                 class   Minimal
                         password   l4s4v3n7ur45
                 password_field   password
                 password_type   clear
                 class   Password
                     class   OpenID
                 class   OpenID
                     whitelisted_hosts   localhost
                 consumer_secret   Dont bother setting
                 ua_class   LWP::UserAgent
                     required   email
                     optional   fullname,nickname,timezone

And now, the same configuration in YAML. <B>NBB>: YAML is whitespace sensitive.

 name: MyApp
   default_realm: members
         class: Password
         password_field: password
         password_type: clear
         class: Minimal
             password: l4s4v3n7ur45
         class: OpenID
           class: OpenID
         consumer_secret: Dont bother setting
         ua_class: LWP::UserAgent
           # whitelist is only relevant for LWPx::ParanoidAgent
             - localhost
             - required: email
               optional: fullname,nickname,timezone

<B>NBB>: There is no OpenID store yet.

You can set trust_root now too. This is experimental and I have no idea if it’s right or could be better. Right now it must be a URI. It was submitted as a path but this seems to limit it to the Catalyst app and while easier to dynamically generate no matter where the app starts, it seems like the wrong way to go. Let me know if that’s mistaken.


The Simple Registration—<>--(SREG) extension to OpenID is supported in the Net::OpenID family now. Experimental support for it is included here as of v0.12. SREG is the only supported extension in OpenID 1.1. It’s experimental in the sense it’s a new interface and barely tested. Support for OpenID extensions is here to stay.

Google’s OpenID is also now supported. Uh, I think.

Here is a snippet from Thorben Jaendling combining Sreg and Google’s extenstionsX

 Plugin::Authentication => {
    openid => {
        credential => {
            class => OpenID,
            ua_class => LWP::UserAgent,
            extensions => {
       => {
                    required => nickname,email,fullname,
                    optional => timezone,language,dob,country,gender
       => {
                    mode => fetch_request,
                    type.nickname =>,
                    type.fullname =>,
                    type.firstname =>,
                    type.lastname =>,
                    type.dob =>,
                    type.gender =>,
                    type.language =>,
                    type.timezone =>,
                    required => nickname,fullname,email,firstname,lastname,
                    if_available => dob,gender,country,language,timezone,
    default_realm => openid,


ua_args and ua_class LWPx::ParanoidAgent is the default agent X ua_class X if it’s available, LWP::UserAgent if not. You don’t have to set it. I recommend that you do <B>notB> override it. You can with any well behaved LWP::UserAgent. You probably should not. LWPx::ParanoidAgent buys you many defenses and extra security checks. When you allow your application users freedom to initiate external requests, you open an avenue for DoS (denial of service) attacks. LWPx::ParanoidAgent defends against this. LWP::UserAgent and any regular subclass of it will not.
consumer_secret The underlying Net::OpenID::Consumer object is seeded with a secret. If it’s important to you to set your own, you can. The default uses this package name + its version + the sorted configuration keys of your Catalyst application (chopped at 255 characters if it’s longer). This should generally be superior to any fixed string.


Option to suppress fatals.

Support more of the new methods in the Net::OpenID kit.

There are some interesting implications with this sort of setup. Does a user aggregate realms or can a user be signed in under more than one realm? The documents could contain a recipe of the self-answering OpenID end-point that is in the tests.

Debug statements need to be both expanded and limited via realm configuration.

Better diagnostics in errors. Debug info at all consumer calls.

Roles from provider domains? Mapped? Direct? A generic openid auto_role?


To Benjamin Trott (Catalyst::Plugin::Authentication::OpenID), Tatsuhiko Miyagawa (Catalyst::Plugin::Authentication::Credential::OpenID), Brad Fitzpatrick for the great OpenID stuff, Martin Atkins for picking up the code to handle OpenID 2.0, and Jay Kuri and everyone else who has made Catalyst such a wonderful framework.

Menno Blom provided a bug fix and the hook to use OpenID extensions.


Copyright (c) 2008-2009, Ashley Pond V <>. Some of Tatsuhiko Miyagawa’s work is reused here.

This module is free software; you can redistribute it and modify it under the same terms as Perl itself. See perlartistic.


Because this software is licensed free of charge, there is no warranty for the software, to the extent permitted by applicable law. Except when otherwise stated in writing the copyright holders and other parties provide the software as is without warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied, including, but not limited to, the implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose. The entire risk as to the quality and performance of the software is with you. Should the software prove defective, you assume the cost of all necessary servicing, repair, or correction.

In no event unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing will any copyright holder, or any other party who may modify or redistribute the software as permitted by the above license, be liable to you for damages, including any general, special, incidental, or consequential damages arising out of the use or inability to use the software (including but not limited to loss of data or data being rendered inaccurate or losses sustained by you or third parties or a failure of the software to operate with any other software), even if such holder or other party has been advised of the possibility of such damages.


OpenID Net::OpenID::Server, Net::OpenID::VerifiedIdentity, Net::OpenID::Consumer, <>, <>, and <>.
Catalyst Authentication Catalyst, Catalyst::Plugin::Authentication, Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::Authorization, and Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial::Authentication.
Catalyst Configuration Catalyst::Plugin::ConfigLoader, Config::General, and YAML.
Miscellaneous Catalyst::Manual::Tutorial, Template, LWPx::ParanoidAgent.
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