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Manual Reference Pages  -  DBD::SQLITE::COOKBOOK (3)

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NAME

DBD::SQLite::Cookbook - The DBD::SQLite Cookbook

CONTENTS

DESCRIPTION

This is the DBD::SQLite cookbook.

It is intended to provide a place to keep a variety of functions and formals for use in callback APIs in DBD::SQLite.

AGGREGATE FUNCTIONS

    Variance

This is a simple aggregate function which returns a variance. It is adapted from an example implementation in pysqlite.



  package variance;
 
  sub new { bless [], shift; }
 
  sub step {
      my ( $self, $value ) = @_;
 
      push @$self, $value;
  }
 
  sub finalize {
      my $self = $_[0];
 
      my $n = @$self;
 
      # Variance is NULL unless there is more than one row
      return undef unless $n || $n == 1;
 
      my $mu = 0;
      foreach my $v ( @$self ) {
          $mu += $v;
      }
      $mu /= $n;
 
      my $sigma = 0;
      foreach my $v ( @$self ) {
          $sigma += ($v - $mu)**2;
      }
      $sigma = $sigma / ($n - 1);
 
      return $sigma;
  }
 
  # NOTE: If you use an older DBI (< 1.608),
  # use $dbh->func(..., "create_aggregate") instead.
  $dbh->sqlite_create_aggregate( "variance", 1, variance );



The function can then be used as:



  SELECT group_name, variance(score)
  FROM results
  GROUP BY group_name;



    Variance (Memory Efficient)

A more efficient variance function, optimized for memory usage at the expense of precision:



  package variance2;
 
  sub new { bless {sum => 0, count=>0, hash=> {} }, shift; }
 
  sub step {
      my ( $self, $value ) = @_;
      my $hash = $self->{hash};
 
      # by truncating and hashing, we can comsume many more data points
      $value = int($value); # change depending on need for precision
                            # use sprintf for arbitrary fp precision
      if (exists $hash->{$value}) {
          $hash->{$value}++;
      } else {
          $hash->{$value} = 1;
      }
      $self->{sum} += $value;
      $self->{count}++;
  }
 
  sub finalize {
      my $self = $_[0];
 
      # Variance is NULL unless there is more than one row
      return undef unless $self->{count} > 1;
 
      # calculate avg
      my $mu = $self->{sum} / $self->{count};
 
      my $sigma = 0;
      while (my ($h, $v) = each %{$self->{hash}}) {
          $sigma += (($h - $mu)**2) * $v;
      }
      $sigma = $sigma / ($self->{count} - 1);
 
      return $sigma;
  }



The function can then be used as:



  SELECT group_name, variance2(score)
  FROM results
  GROUP BY group_name;



    Variance (Highly Scalable)

A third variable implementation, designed for arbitrarily large data sets:



  package variance3;
 
  sub new { bless {mu=>0, count=>0, S=>0}, shift; }
 
  sub step {
      my ( $self, $value ) = @_;
      $self->{count}++;
      my $delta = $value - $self->{mu};
      $self->{mu} += $delta/$self->{count};
      $self->{S} += $delta*($value - $self->{mu});
  }
 
  sub finalize {
      my $self = $_[0];
      return $self->{S} / ($self->{count} - 1);
  }



The function can then be used as:



  SELECT group_name, variance3(score)
  FROM results
  GROUP BY group_name;



SUPPORT

Bugs should be reported via the CPAN bug tracker at

<http://rt.cpan.org/NoAuth/ReportBug.html?Queue=DBD-SQLite>

TO DO

o Add more and varied cookbook recipes, until we have enough to turn them into a separate CPAN distribution.
o Create a series of tests scripts that validate the cookbook recipes.

AUTHOR

Adam Kennedy <adamk@cpan.org>

COPYRIGHT

Copyright 2009 - 2012 Adam Kennedy.

This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.

The full text of the license can be found in the LICENSE file included with this module.

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perl v5.20.3 DBD::SQLITE::COOKBOOK (3) 2014-07-21

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