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Manual Reference Pages  -  DBIX::CLASS::SCHEMA (3)

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DBIx::Class::Schema - composable schemas



  package Library::Schema;
  use base qw/DBIx::Class::Schema/;

  # load all Result classes in Library/Schema/Result/

  package Library::Schema::Result::CD;
  use base qw/DBIx::Class::Core/;

  __PACKAGE__->load_components(qw/InflateColumn::DateTime/); # for example

  # Elsewhere in your code:
  my $schema1 = Library::Schema->connect(
    { AutoCommit => 1 },

  my $schema2 = Library::Schema->connect($coderef_returning_dbh);

  # fetch objects using Library::Schema::Result::DVD
  my $resultset = $schema1->resultset(DVD)->search( ... );
  my @dvd_objects = $schema2->resultset(DVD)->search( ... );


Creates database classes based on a schema. This is the recommended way to use DBIx::Class and allows you to use more than one concurrent connection with your classes.

NB: If you’re used to Class::DBI it’s worth reading the SYNOPSIS carefully, as DBIx::Class does things a little differently. Note in particular which module inherits off which.



Arguments: %options?

  package MyApp::Schema;

     result_namespace => Res,
     resultset_namespace => RSet,
     default_resultset_class => +MyApp::Othernamespace::RSet,

With no arguments, this method uses Module::Find to load all of the Result and ResultSet classes under the namespace of the schema from which it is called. For example, My::Schema will by default find and load Result classes named My::Schema::Result::* and ResultSet classes named My::Schema::ResultSet::*.

ResultSet classes are associated with Result class of the same name. For example, My::Schema::Result::CD will get the ResultSet class My::Schema::ResultSet::CD if it is present.

Both Result and ResultSet namespaces are configurable via the result_namespace and resultset_namespace options.

Another option, default_resultset_class specifies a custom default ResultSet class for Result classes with no corresponding ResultSet.

All of the namespace and classname options are by default relative to the schema classname. To specify a fully-qualified name, prefix it with a literal +. For example, +Other::NameSpace::Result.


You will be warned if ResultSet classes are discovered for which there are no matching Result classes like this:

  load_namespaces found ResultSet class $classname with no corresponding Result class

If a ResultSource instance is found to already have a ResultSet class set using resultset_class to some other class, you will be warned like this:

  We found ResultSet class $rs_class for $result_class, but it seems
  that you had already set $result_class to use $rs_set instead


  # load My::Schema::Result::CD, My::Schema::Result::Artist,
  #    My::Schema::ResultSet::CD, etc...

  # Override everything to use ugly names.
  # In this example, if there is a My::Schema::Res::Foo, but no matching
  #   My::Schema::RSets::Foo, then Foo will have its
  #   resultset_class set to My::Schema::RSetBase
    result_namespace => Res,
    resultset_namespace => RSets,
    default_resultset_class => RSetBase,

  # Put things in other namespaces
    result_namespace => +Some::Place::Results,
    resultset_namespace => +Another::Place::RSets,

To search multiple namespaces for either Result or ResultSet classes, use an arrayref of namespaces for that option. In the case that the same result (or resultset) class exists in multiple namespaces, later entries in the list of namespaces will override earlier ones.

    # My::Schema::Results_C::Foo takes precedence over My::Schema::Results_B::Foo :
    result_namespace => [ Results_A, Results_B, Results_C ],
    resultset_namespace => [ +Some::Place::RSets, RSets ],


Arguments: @classes?, { $namespace => [ @classes ] }+
load_classes is an alternative method to load_namespaces, both of which serve similar purposes, each with different advantages and disadvantages. In the general case you should use load_namespaces, unless you need to be able to specify that only specific classes are loaded at runtime.

With no arguments, this method uses Module::Find to find all classes under the schema’s namespace. Otherwise, this method loads the classes you specify (using use), and registers them (using register_class).

It is possible to comment out classes with a leading #, but note that perl will think it’s a mistake (trying to use a comment in a qw list), so you’ll need to add no warnings qw; before your load_classes call.

If any classes found do not appear to be Result class files, you will get the following warning:

   Failed to load $comp_class. Cant find source_name method. Is
   $comp_class really a full DBIC result class? Fix it, move it elsewhere,
   or make your load_classes call more specific.


  My::Schema->load_classes(); # loads My::Schema::CD, My::Schema::Artist,
                              # etc. (anything under the My::Schema namespace)

  # loads My::Schema::CD, My::Schema::Artist, Other::Namespace::Producer but
  # not Other::Namespace::LinerNotes nor My::Schema::Track
  My::Schema->load_classes(qw/ CD Artist #Track /, {
    Other::Namespace => [qw/ Producer #LinerNotes /],


Arguments: $storage_type|{$storage_type, \%args}
Return Value: $storage_type|{$storage_type, \%args}
Default value: DBIx::Class::Storage::DBI
Set the storage class that will be instantiated when connect is called. If the classname starts with ::, the prefix DBIx::Class::Storage is assumed by connect.

You want to use this to set subclasses of DBIx::Class::Storage::DBI in cases where the appropriate subclass is not autodetected.

If your storage type requires instantiation arguments, those are defined as a second argument in the form of a hashref and the entire value needs to be wrapped into an arrayref or a hashref. We support both types of refs here in order to play nice with your Config::[class] or your choice. See DBIx::Class::Storage::DBI::Replicated for an example of this.


Arguments: $code_reference
Return Value: $code_reference
Default value: None
When throw_exception is invoked and exception_action is set to a code reference, this reference will be called instead of throw in DBIx::Class::Exception, with the exception message passed as the only argument.

Your custom throw code <B>mustB> rethrow the exception, as throw_exception is an integral part of DBIC’s internal execution control flow.


   package My::Schema;
   use base qw/DBIx::Class::Schema/;
   use My::ExceptionClass;
   __PACKAGE__->exception_action(sub { My::ExceptionClass->throw(@_) });

   # or:
   my $schema_obj = My::Schema->connect( .... );
   $schema_obj->exception_action(sub { My::ExceptionClass->throw(@_) });


Arguments: boolean
Whether throw_exception should include stack trace information. Defaults to false normally, but defaults to true if $ENV{DBIC_TRACE} is true.


Arguments: $sqlt_schema
An optional sub which you can declare in your own Schema class that will get passed the SQL::Translator::Schema object when you deploy the schema via create_ddl_dir or deploy.

For an example of what you can do with this, see Adding Indexes And Functions To Your SQL in DBIx::Class::Manual::Cookbook.

Note that sqlt_deploy_hook is called by deployment_statements, which in turn is called before deploy. Therefore the hook can be used only to manipulate the SQL::Translator::Schema object before it is turned into SQL fed to the database. If you want to execute post-deploy statements which can not be generated by SQL::Translator, the currently suggested method is to overload deploy and use dbh_do.



Arguments: @connectinfo
Return Value: $new_schema
Creates and returns a new Schema object. The connection info set on it is used to create a new instance of the storage backend and set it on the Schema object.

See connect_info in DBIx::Class::Storage::DBI for DBI-specific syntax on the @connectinfo argument, or DBIx::Class::Storage in general.

Note that connect_info expects an arrayref of arguments, but connect does not. connect wraps its arguments in an arrayref before passing them to connect_info.


connect is a convenience method. It is equivalent to calling $schema->clone->connection(@connectinfo). To write your own overloaded version, overload connection instead.


Arguments: $source_name
Return Value: $resultset

  my $rs = $schema->resultset(DVD);

Returns the DBIx::Class::ResultSet object for the registered source name.


Return Value: @source_names

  my @source_names = $schema->sources;

Lists names of all the sources registered on this Schema object.


Arguments: $source_name
Return Value: $result_source

  my $source = $schema->source(Book);

Returns the DBIx::Class::ResultSource object for the registered source name.


Arguments: $source_name
Return Value: $classname

  my $class = $schema->class(CD);

Retrieves the Result class name for the given source name.


Arguments: $coderef, @coderef_args?
Return Value: The return value of $coderef
Executes $coderef with (optional) arguments @coderef_args atomically, returning its result (if any). Equivalent to calling $schema->storage->txn_do. See txn_do in DBIx::Class::Storage for more information.

This interface is preferred over using the individual methods txn_begin, txn_commit, and txn_rollback below.

WARNING: If you are connected with AutoCommit => 0 the transaction is considered nested, and you will still need to call txn_commit to write your changes when appropriate. You will also want to connect with auto_savepoint => 1 to get partial rollback to work, if the storage driver for your database supports it.

Connecting with AutoCommit => 1 is recommended.


Runs txn_scope_guard on the schema’s storage. See txn_scope_guard in DBIx::Class::Storage.


Begins a transaction (does nothing if AutoCommit is off). Equivalent to calling $schema->storage->txn_begin. See txn_begin in DBIx::Class::Storage for more information.


Commits the current transaction. Equivalent to calling $schema->storage->txn_commit. See txn_commit in DBIx::Class::Storage for more information.


Rolls back the current transaction. Equivalent to calling $schema->storage->txn_rollback. See txn_rollback in DBIx::Class::Storage for more information.


  my $storage = $schema->storage;

Returns the DBIx::Class::Storage object for this Schema. Grab this if you want to turn on SQL statement debugging at runtime, or set the quote character. For the default storage, the documentation can be found in DBIx::Class::Storage::DBI.


Arguments: $source_name, [ \@column_list, \@row_values+ ] | [ \%col_data+ ]
Return Value: \@result_objects (scalar context) | @result_objects (list context)
A convenience shortcut to populate in DBIx::Class::ResultSet. Equivalent to:


NOTE The context of this method call has an important effect on what is submitted to storage. In void context data is fed directly to fastpath insertion routines provided by the underlying storage (most often execute_for_fetch in DBI), bypassing the new and insert calls on the Result class, including any augmentation of these methods provided by components. For example if you are using something like DBIx::Class::UUIDColumns to create primary keys for you, you will find that your PKs are empty. In this case you will have to explicitly force scalar or list context in order to create those values.


Arguments: @args
Return Value: $new_schema
Similar to connect except sets the storage object and connection data in-place on the Schema class. You should probably be calling connect to get a proper Schema object instead.


Overload connection to change the behaviour of connect.


Arguments: $target_namespace, $additional_base_class?
Return Value: $new_schema
For each DBIx::Class::ResultSource in the schema, this method creates a class in the target namespace (e.g. $target_namespace::CD, $target_namespace::Artist) that inherits from the corresponding classes attached to the current schema.

It also attaches a corresponding DBIx::Class::ResultSource object to the new $schema object. If $additional_base_class is given, the new composed classes will inherit from first the corresponding class from the current schema then the base class.

For example, for a schema with My::Schema::CD and My::Schema::Artist classes,

  $schema->compose_namespace(My::DB, Base::Class);
  print join (, , @My::DB::CD::ISA) . "\n";
  print join (, , @My::DB::Artist::ISA) ."\n";

will produce the output

  My::Schema::CD, Base::Class
  My::Schema::Artist, Base::Class


Creates a new savepoint (does nothing outside a transaction). Equivalent to calling $schema->storage->svp_begin. See svp_begin in DBIx::Class::Storage for more information.


Releases a savepoint (does nothing outside a transaction). Equivalent to calling $schema->storage->svp_release. See svp_release in DBIx::Class::Storage for more information.


Rollback to a savepoint (does nothing outside a transaction). Equivalent to calling $schema->storage->svp_rollback. See svp_rollback in DBIx::Class::Storage for more information.


Arguments: %attrs?
Return Value: $new_schema
Clones the schema and its associated result_source objects and returns the copy. The resulting copy will have the same attributes as the source schema, except for those attributes explicitly overridden by the provided %attrs.


Arguments: $message
Throws an exception. Obeys the exemption rules of DBIx::Class::Carp to report errors from outer-user’s perspective. See exception_action for details on overriding this method’s behavior. If stacktrace is turned on, throw_exception’s default behavior will provide a detailed stack trace.


Arguments: \%sqlt_args, $dir
Attempts to deploy the schema to the current storage using SQL::Translator.

See METHODS in SQL::Translator for a list of values for \%sqlt_args. The most common value for this would be { add_drop_table => 1 } to have the SQL produced include a DROP TABLE statement for each table created. For quoting purposes supply quote_identifiers.

Additionally, the DBIx::Class parser accepts a sources parameter as a hash ref or an array ref, containing a list of source to deploy. If present, then only the sources listed will get deployed. Furthermore, you can use the add_fk_index parser parameter to prevent the parser from creating an index for each FK.


Arguments: See ‘‘deployment_statements’’ in DBIx::Class::Storage::DBI
Return Value: $listofstatements
A convenient shortcut to $self->storage->deployment_statements($self, @args). Returns the statements used by deploy and deploy in DBIx::Class::Storage.


Arguments: See ‘‘create_ddl_dir’’ in DBIx::Class::Storage::DBI
A convenient shortcut to $self->storage->create_ddl_dir($self, @args).

Creates an SQL file based on the Schema, for each of the specified database types, in the given directory.


Arguments: $database-type, $version, $directory, $preversion
Return Value: $normalised_filename

  my $filename = $table->ddl_filename($type, $version, $dir, $preversion)

This method is called by create_ddl_dir to compose a file name out of the supplied directory, database type and version number. The default file name format is: $dir$schema-$version-$type.sql.

You may override this method in your schema if you wish to use a different format.


 Prior to DBIx::Class version 0.08100 this method had a different signature:

    my $filename = $table->ddl_filename($type, $dir, $version, $preversion)

 In recent versions variables $dir and $version were reversed in order to
 bring the signature in line with other Schema/Storage methods. If you
 really need to maintain backward compatibility, you can do the following
 in any overriding methods:

    ($dir, $version) = ($version, $dir) if ($DBIx::Class::VERSION < 0.08100);


Provided as the recommended way of thawing schema objects. You can call Storable::thaw directly if you wish, but the thawed objects will not have a reference to any schema, so are rather useless.


This doesn’t actually do anything beyond calling nfreeze, it is just provided here for symmetry.


Arguments: $object
Return Value: dcloned $object
Recommended way of dcloning DBIx::Class::Row and DBIx::Class::ResultSet objects so their references to the schema object (which itself is <B>notB> cloned) are properly maintained.


Returns the current schema class’ $VERSION in a normalised way.


Arguments: $source_name, $component_class
This method is called by load_namespaces and load_classes to install the found classes into your Schema. You should be using those instead of this one.

You will only need this method if you have your Result classes in files which are not named after the packages (or all in the same file). You may also need it to register classes at runtime.

Registers a class which isa DBIx::Class::ResultSourceProxy. Equivalent to calling:

  $schema->register_source($source_name, $component_class->result_source_instance);


Arguments: $source_name, $result_source
This method is called by register_class.

Registers the DBIx::Class::ResultSource in the schema with the given source name.


Arguments: $source_name
Removes the DBIx::Class::ResultSource from the schema for the given source name.


Arguments: $source_name, $result_source
As register_source but should be used if the result class already has a source and you want to register an extra one.

    compose_connection (DEPRECATED)

Arguments: $target_namespace, @db_info
Return Value: $new_schema
DEPRECATED. You probably wanted compose_namespace.

Actually, you probably just wanted to call connect.


Check the list of additional DBIC resources.


This module is free software copyright by the DBIx::Class (DBIC) authors. You can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as the DBIx::Class library.
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