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Manual Reference Pages  -  DATA::REMEMBER (3)

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Data::Remember - remember complex information without giving yourself a headache



  use Data::Remember Memory;

  remember foo => 1;
  remember [ bar => 7 ], [ spaz, w00t, doof, flibble ];
  remember [ xyz, abc, mno ] => { some => thing };

  remember_these cook => goose;
  remember_these cook => duck;
  remember_these cook => turkey;

  my $foo     = recall foo;        # retrieve a simple key
  my $wibbler = recall [ bar => 7 ]; # retrieve a complex key
  my $alpha   = recall xyz;        # retrieve a subkey

  my $cook    = recall [ cook ];   # retrieves [ qw/ goose duck turkey / ]

  forget foo;

  my $foo_again = recall foo; # $foo_again is undef

  forget_when { /^duck$/ } [ cook ];

  my $cook_again = recall cook; # $cook_again is [ qw/ goose turkey / ]


While designing some IRC bots and such I got really tired of statements that looked like:

  $heap->{job}{$job} = {
      source  => $source,
      dest    => $destination,
      options => $options,

and later:

  if ($heap->{job}{$job}{options}{wibble} eq $something_else) {
      # do something...

I could simplify things with intermediate variables, but then I inevitably end up with 4 or 5 lines of init at the start or middle of each subroutine. Yech.

So, I decided that it would be nice to simplify the above to:

  remember [ job => $job ], {
      source  => $source,
      dest    => $destination,
      options => $options,

and later:

  if (recall [ job => $job, options => wibble ] eq $something_else) {
      # do something...

Which I consider to far more readable.

The second aspect that this deals with is long-term storage. I started using DBM::Deep to remember the important bits of state across bot restarts. This package will store your information persistently for you too if you want:

  use Data::Remember DBM => state.db;

By using that command, the Data::Remember::DBM brain is used instead of the usual Data::Remember::Memory brain, which just stores things in a Perl data structure.


By using this module you will automatically import (I know, how rude) four subroutines into the calling package: remember, remember_these, recall, recall_and_update, forget, forget_when, and brain.


Each take a $que argument. The que is a memory que to store the information with. This que may be a scalar, an array, or a hash, depending on what suits your needs. However, you will want to be aware of how these are translated into memory locations in the brain plugin.

Any que argument is passed to the brain as an array. A scalar que is just wrapped in an array reference:

  remember foo => 1;

is the same as:

  remember [ foo ] => 1;

An array que is passed exactly as it is to the brain plugin.

A hash que is converted to an array by sorting the keys in lexicographic order and keeping the pairs together. For example:

  remember { foo => 3, bar => 2, baz => 1 } => xyz;

is the same as:

  remember [ bar => 2, baz => 1, foo => 3 ] => xyz;

Once the array is built the brains are required to treat these in the same way as hash keys for a hash of hashes. For example, you can think of:

  remember [ foo => 3, bar => 2, baz => 1 ] => xyz;

as being similar to storing:

  $memory->{foo}{3}{bar}{2}{baz}{1} = xyz;

This means that you could later recall a subset of the previous key:

  my $bar = recall [ foo => 3, bar ];

which would return a hash reference similar to:

  my $bar = { 2 => { baz => { 1 => xyz } } };

(assuming you hadn’t stored anything else under [ foo => 3, bar ]).

Clear as mud? Good!

import CW$brain, CW@options;

Called automagically when you use this package. Do <B>NOTB> try

  use Data::Remember ();

This will keep import from being called, which will keep you from using any of the nice features of this package. Since it uses deep magic in the import process, attempting to call Data::Remember::remember() and such won’t work correctly.

If you can’t import these three methods, sorry. Send me a bug report and a patch and I’ll consider it.

The $brain argument lets you select a brain plugin to use. The brain plugins available with this distribution currently include:
Data::Remember::Memory A brain that stores everything in plain Perl data structures. Data in this brain is not persistent.
Data::Remember::DBM A brain that stores everything via DBM::Deep. Data stored here will be persistent. This brain also requires additional arguments (see the module documentation for details).
Data::Remember::YAML A brain that stores everything via YAML. This is great for storing configuration data.
Data::Remember::Hybrid A brain that doesn’t store anything, but lets you use mix storage mechanisms.
You can specify $brain as a short name if it exists under "Data::Remember::. (For example, DBM will load Data::Remember::DBM".) if $brain contains a "::", then it will be treated as a fully qualified name, in case you want to create your own brain. See CREATING A BRAIN.

The @options are whatever options described in the brain’s module documentation.

remember CW$que, CW$fact

Remember the given $fact at memory que $que. See QUE for an in depth discussion of $que. The $fact can be anything your brain can store. This will generally include, at least, scalars, hash references, and array references.

remember_these CW$que, CW$fact

Stores the given $fact at the give $que, but stores it by pushing it onto the back of an array stored at $que. This allows you to remember a list of things at a given $que:

  remember_these stooges => Larry;
  remember_these stooges => Curly;
  remember_these stooges => Moe;

  my $stooges = recall stooges; # returns the array [ qw( Larry Curly Moe ) ]

recall CW$que

Recalls a previously stored fact located at the memory location described by $que. See QUE for an in depth discussion of that argument.

If no fact is found at that que, undef will be returned.

recall_and_update { ... } CW$que

This helper allows you to simultaneously recall and update an entry. For example, if you want to increment the entry while recalling it:

  my $count = recall_and_update { $_++ } count;

any modification to $_ will be stored back into the given que. The result of the code run is returned by the function. For example, if you wanted to replace every G with Q in the brain, but wanted to use the original unmodified string, you could:

  my $with_g = recall_and_update { my $copy = $_; s/G/Q/g; $copy } some_que;

forget CW$que

Tells the brain to forget a previously remembered fact stored at $que. See QUE for an in depth discussion of the argument. If no fact is stored at the given $que, this subroutine does nothing.

forget_when { ... } CW$que

Tells the brain to forget a previously remembered fact stored at $que. The behavior of forget_when changes depending on the nature of the fact stored at $que.

If $que is a hash, the code reference given as the first argument will be called for each key/value pair and passed the key in $_[0] and the value in $_[1]. When the code reference returns true, that pair will be forgotten.

If $que is an array, the code reference given as the first argument will be called for each index/value pair and passed the index in $_[0] and the value in $_[1], the value will be passed in $_ as well. If the code reference returns a true value, that value will be forgotten.

For any other type of fact stored in the brain, the code reference will be called with $_[0] set to undef and $_[1] and $_ set to the value of the fact. The whole que will be forgotten if the code reference returns true.


Returns the inner object used to store data. This can be used in case the brain plugin provides additional methods or features that need manual access. For example, if you want to use DBM::Deeps locking features, you could:


  my $balance = recall balance;
  remember balance => $balance + 150;



If you would like to create a custom brain plugin, you need to create a package that implements four methods: new, remember, recall, and forget.

The new method will take the list of options passed to import for your brain in addition to the class name. It should return a blessed reference that will be used for all further method calls.

The remember method will be passed a normalized reference to a que array and the fact the user has asked to store. You should read through QUE and handle the first argument as described there. Then, store the second argument at the memory location described.

The recall method will be passed a normalized reference to a que array, which should be treated as described in QUE. Your implementation should return the fact stored at that location or undef. It’s important that your implementation avoid the pit-falls caused by auto-vivifying keys. The recall method should never modify the memory of your brain.

The forget method will be passed a normalized reference to a que array, which should be treated as described in QUE. Your implementation should then delete any fact stored there. Other than deleting this key, the forget method should not modify any other aspect of the memory of your brain.

To build a brain, I highly recommend extending Data::Remember::Memory, which performs (or should perform) all the work of safely storing and fetching records from a Perl data structure according to the interface described here. It stores everything under $self->{brain}. At the very least, you should read through that code before building your brain.

The Data::Remember::DBM or other included brains may also be a good place to look. They extend Data::Remember::Memory so that I didn’t have to repeat myself.


Data::Remember::Memory, Data::Remember::DBM, Data::Remember::YAML, Data::Remember::Hybrid


Andrew Sterling Hanenkamp <>


Copyright 2007 Boomer Consulting, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

This program is free software and may be modified and distributed under the same terms as Perl itself.

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