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Manual Reference Pages  -  TYPES::STANDARD (3)

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Types::Standard - bundled set of built-in types for Type::Tiny



This module is covered by the Type-Tiny stability policy.


Type::Tiny bundles a few types which seem to be useful.


The following types are similar to those described in Moose::Util::TypeConstraints.
Any Absolutely any value passes this type constraint (even undef).
Item Essentially the same as Any. All other type constraints in this library inherit directly or indirectly from Item.
Bool Values that are reasonable booleans. Accepts 1, 0, the empty string and undef.
Maybe[`a] Given another type constraint, also accepts undef. For example, Maybe[Int] accepts all integers plus undef.
Undef Only undef passes this type constraint.
Defined Only undef fails this type constraint.
Value Any defined, non-reference value.
Str Any string.

(The only difference between Value and Str is that the former accepts typeglobs and vstrings.)

Other customers also bought: StringLike from Types::TypeTiny.

Num See LaxNum and StrictNum below.
Int An integer; that is a string of digits 0 to 9, optionally prefixed with a hyphen-minus character.
ClassName The name of a loaded package. The package must have @ISA or $VERSION defined, or must define at least one sub to be considered a loaded package.
RoleName Like ClassName, but the package must not define a method called new. This is subtly different from Moose’s type constraint of the same name; let me know if this causes you any problems. (I can’t promise I’ll change anything though.)
Ref[`a] Any defined reference value, including blessed objects.

Unlike Moose, Ref is a parameterized type, allowing Scalar::Util::reftype checks, a la

   Ref["HASH"]  # hashrefs, including blessed hashrefs

ScalarRef[`a] A value where ref($value) eq "SCALAR" or ref($value) eq "REF".

If parameterized, the referred value must pass the additional constraint. For example, ScalarRef[Int] must be a reference to a scalar which holds an integer value.

ArrayRef[`a] A value where ref($value) eq "ARRAY".

If parameterized, the elements of the array must pass the additional constraint. For example, ArrayRef[Num] must be a reference to an array of numbers.

Other customers also bought: ArrayLike from Types::TypeTiny.

HashRef[`a] A value where ref($value) eq "HASH".

If parameterized, the values of the hash must pass the additional constraint. For example, HashRef[Num] must be a reference to an hash where the values are numbers. The hash keys are not constrained, but Perl limits them to strings; see Map below if you need to further constrain the hash values.

Other customers also bought: HashLike from Types::TypeTiny.

CodeRef A value where ref($value) eq "CODE".

Other customers also bought: CodeLike from Types::TypeTiny.

RegexpRef A value where ref($value) eq "Regexp".
GlobRef A value where ref($value) eq "GLOB".
FileHandle A file handle.
Object A blessed object.

(This also accepts regexp refs.)


OK, so I stole some ideas from MooseX::Types::Structured.
Map[`k, `v] Similar to HashRef but parameterized with type constraints for both the key and value. The constraint for keys would typically be a subtype of Str.
Tuple[...] Subtype of ArrayRef, accepting an list of type constraints for each slot in the array.

Tuple[Int, HashRef] would match [1, {}] but not [{}, 1].

Dict[...] Subtype of HashRef, accepting an list of type constraints for each slot in the hash.

For example Dict[name => Str, id => Int] allows { name => "Bob", id => 42 }.

Optional[`a] Used in conjunction with Dict and Tuple to specify slots that are optional and may be omitted (but not necessarily set to an explicit undef).

Dict[name => Str, id => Optional[Int]] allows { name => "Bob" } but not { name => "Bob", id => "BOB" }.

Note that any use of Optional[`a] outside the context of parameterized Dict and Tuple type constraints makes little sense, and its behaviour is undefined. (An exception: it is used by Type::Params for a similar purpose to how it’s used in Tuple.)

This module also exports a slurpy function, which can be used as follows.

It can cause additional trailing values in a Tuple to be slurped into a structure and validated. For example, slurping into an ArrayRef:

   my $type = Tuple[Str, slurpy ArrayRef[Int]];
   $type->( ["Hello"] );                # ok
   $type->( ["Hello", 1, 2, 3] );       # ok
   $type->( ["Hello", [1, 2, 3]] );     # not ok

Or into a hashref:

   my $type2 = Tuple[Str, slurpy Map[Int, RegexpRef]];
   $type2->( ["Hello"] );                               # ok
   $type2->( ["Hello", 1, qr/one/i, 2, qr/two/] );      # ok

It can cause additional values in a Dict to be slurped into a hashref and validated:

   my $type3 = Dict[ values => ArrayRef, slurpy HashRef[Str] ];
   $type3->( { values => [] } );                        # ok
   $type3->( { values => [], name => "Foo" } );         # ok
   $type3->( { values => [], name => [] } );            # not ok

In either Tuple or Dict, slurpy Any can be used to indicate that additional values are acceptable, but should not be constrained in any way. (slurpy Any is an optimized code path.)


OK, so I stole some ideas from MooX::Types::MooseLike::Base.
InstanceOf[`a] Shortcut for a union of Type::Tiny::Class constraints.

InstanceOf["Foo", "Bar"] allows objects blessed into the Foo or Bar classes, or subclasses of those.

Given no parameters, just equivalent to Object.

ConsumerOf[`a] Shortcut for an intersection of Type::Tiny::Role constraints.

ConsumerOf["Foo", "Bar"] allows objects where $o->DOES("Foo") and $o->DOES("Bar") both return true.

Given no parameters, just equivalent to Object.

HasMethods[`a] Shortcut for a Type::Tiny::Duck constraint.

HasMethods["foo", "bar"] allows objects where $o->can("foo") and $o->can("bar") both return true.

Given no parameters, just equivalent to Object.


There are a few other types exported by this function:
Overload[`a] With no parameters, checks that the value is an overloaded object. Can be given one or more string parameters, which are specific operations to check are overloaded. For example, the following checks for objects which overload addition and subtraction.

   Overload["+", "-"]

Tied[`a] A reference to a tied scalar, array or hash.

Can be parameterized with a type constraint which will be applied to the object returned by the tied() function. As a convenience, can also be parameterized with a string, which will be inflated to a Type::Tiny::Class.

   use Types::Standard qw(Tied);
   use Type::Utils qw(class_type);
   my $My_Package = class_type { class => "My::Package" };
   tie my %h, "My::Package";
   \%h ~~ Tied;                   # true
   \%h ~~ Tied[ $My_Package ];    # true
   \%h ~~ Tied["My::Package"];    # true
   tie my $s, "Other::Package";
   \$s ~~ Tied;                   # true
   $s  ~~ Tied;                   # false !!

If you need to check that something is specifically a reference to a tied hash, use an intersection:

   use Types::Standard qw( Tied HashRef );
   my $TiedHash = (Tied) & (HashRef);
   tie my %h, "My::Package";
   tie my $s, "Other::Package";
   \%h ~~ $TiedHash;     # true
   \$s ~~ $TiedHash;     # false

StrMatch[`a] A string that matches a regular expression:

   declare "Distance",
      as StrMatch[ qr{^([0-9]+)\s*(mm|cm|m|km)$} ];

You can optionally provide a type constraint for the array of subexpressions:

   declare "Distance",
      as StrMatch[
            enum(DistanceUnit => [qw/ mm cm m km /]),

Enum[`a] As per MooX::Types::MooseLike::Base:

   has size => (is => "ro", isa => Enum[qw( S M L XL XXL )]);

OptList An arrayref of arrayrefs in the style of Data::OptList output.
LaxNum, StrictNum In Moose 2.09, the Num type constraint implementation was changed from being a wrapper around Scalar::Util’s looks_like_number function to a stricter regexp (which disallows things like -Inf and Nan).

Types::Standard provides both implementations. LaxNum is measurably faster.

The Num type constraint is currently an alias for LaxNum unless you set the PERL_TYPES_STANDARD_STRICTNUM environment variable to true before loading Types::Standard, in which case it becomes an alias for StrictNum. The constant Types::Standard::STRICTNUM can be used to check if Num is being strict.

Most people should probably use Num or StrictNum. Don’t explicitly use LaxNum unless you specifically need an attribute which will accept things like Inf.


None of the types in this type library have any coercions by default. However some standalone coercions may be exported. These can be combined with type constraints using the plus_coercions method.
MkOpt A coercion from ArrayRef, HashRef or Undef to OptList. Example usage in a Moose attribute:

   use Types::Standard qw( OptList MkOpt );
   has options => (
      is     => "ro",
      isa    => OptList->plus_coercions( MkOpt ),
      coerce => 1,

Split[`a] Split a string on a regexp.

   use Types::Standard qw( ArrayRef Str Split );
   has name => (
      is     => "ro",
      isa    => (ArrayRef[Str])->plus_coercions(Split[qr/\s/]),
      coerce => 1,

Join[`a] Join an array of strings with a delimiter.

   use Types::Standard qw( Str Join );
   my $FileLines = Str->plus_coercions(Join["\n"]);
   has file_contents => (
      is     => "ro",
      isa    => $FileLines,
      coerce => 1,


Types::Standard::STRICTNUM Indicates whether Num is an alias for StrictNum. (It is usually an alias for LaxNum.)


Please report any bugs to <>.



Type::Tiny, Type::Library, Type::Utils, Type::Coercion.

Moose::Util::TypeConstraints, Mouse::Util::TypeConstraints, MooseX::Types::Structured.

Types::XSD provides some type constraints based on XML Schema’s data types; this includes constraints for ISO8601-formatted datetimes, integer ranges (e.g. PositiveInteger[maxInclusive=>10] and so on.

Types::Encodings provides Bytes and Chars type constraints that were formerly found in Types::Standard.

Types::Common::Numeric and Types::Common::String provide replacements for MooseX::Types::Common.


Toby Inkster <>.


This software is copyright (c) 2013-2014 by Toby Inkster.

This is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as the Perl 5 programming language system itself.


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