- annotate RCS files
outputs an annotated revision from each RCS file. An
annotated RCS file describes the revision and date in which each line was
added to the file, and the author of each line.
Pathnames matching an RCS suffix denote RCS files; all others denote working
files. Names are paired as explained in ci
A revision is selected by options for revision or branch number, checkin
date/time, author, or state. When the selection options are applied in
retrieves the latest revision that satisfies
all of them. If none of the selection options is specified,
retrieves the latest revision on the default branch
(normally the trunk, see the -b
option of rcs
(1)). The options
), and -w
) retrieve from a single branch, the selected
branch, which is specified by -r
), or the default
always performs keyword substitution (see KEYWORD
- -r, --revision[=rev]
- Retrieves the latest revision whose number is less than or equal to
rev. If rev indicates a branch rather than a revision, the
latest revision on that branch is retrieved. If rev is omitted, the
latest revision on the default branch (see the -b option of
rcs(1)) is annotated. If rev is $,
blame determines the revision number from keyword values in
the working file. Otherwise, a revision is composed of one or more numeric
or symbolic fields separated by periods. If rev begins with a
period, then the default branch (normally the trunk) is prepended to it.
If rev is a branch number followed by a period, then the latest
revision on that branch is used. The numeric equivalent of a symbolic
field is specified with the -n option of the commands ci(1)
- -kkv, --expand=kv
- Generate keyword strings using the default form, e.g. $Revision: 1.3
$ for the Revision keyword. This is the default.
- -kkvl, --expand=kvl
- Like -kkv, except that a locker's name is inserted into the value
of the Header, Id, and Locker keyword strings if the
given revision is currently locked.
- -kk, --expand=k
- Generate only keyword names in keyword strings; omit their values. See
KEYWORD SUBSTITUTION in co(1). For example, for the
Revision keyword, generate the string $Revision$ instead of
$Revision: 1.3 $. Log messages are inserted after $Log$
keywords even if this option is specified.
- -ko, --expand=o
- Generate the old keyword string, present in the working file just before
it was checked in. For example, for the Revision keyword, generate
the string $Revision: 1.1 $ instead of $Revision: 1.3 $ if
that is how the string appeared when the file was checked in.
- -kb, --expand=b
- Generate a binary image of the old keyword string. This acts like
-ko, except it performs all working file input and output in binary
mode. This makes little difference on Posix and Unix hosts.
- -kv, --expand=v
- Generate only keyword values for keyword strings. For example, for the
Revision keyword, generate the string 1.3 instead of
$Revision: 1.3 $.
- -d, --date=date
- Retrieves the latest revision on the selected branch whose checkin
date/time is less than or equal to date. The date and time can be
given in free format. The time zone LT stands for local time; other
common time zone names are understood. For example, the following
dates are equivalent if local time is January 11, 1990, 8pm Pacific
Standard Time, eight hours west of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC):
8:00 pm lt
4:00 AM, Jan. 12, 1990 default is UTC
1990-01-12 04:00:00+00 ISO 8601 (UTC)
1990-01-11 20:00:00-08 ISO 8601 (local time)
1990/01/12 04:00:00 traditional RCS format
Thu Jan 11 20:00:00 1990 LT output of ctime(3) + LT
Thu Jan 11 20:00:00 PST 1990 output of date(1)
Fri Jan 12 04:00:00 GMT 1990
Thu, 11 Jan 1990 20:00:00 -0800 Internet RFC 822
12-January-1990, 04:00 WET
Most fields in the date and time can be defaulted. The default time zone is
normally UTC, but this can be overridden by the -z
option. The other
defaults are determined in the order year, month, day, hour, minute, and
second (most to least significant). At least one of these fields must be
provided. For omitted fields that are of higher significance than the highest
provided field, the time zone's current values are assumed. For all other
omitted fields, the lowest possible values are assumed. For example, without
, the date 20, 10:30
defaults to 10:30:00 UTC of the 20th of
the UTC time zone's current month and year. The date/time must be quoted if it
- -s, --state=state
- Retrieves the latest revision on the selected branch whose state is set to
- -w, --login[=login]
- Retrieves the latest revision on the selected branch which was checked in
by the user with login name login. If the argument login is
omitted, the caller's login is assumed.
- -V, --version[=ver]
- If no argument is supplied, print blame's version number, and the
version of RCS it emulates by default. Otherwise emulate the specified
version. See co(1) for details.
- -x, --suffixes=suffixes
- Use suffixes to characterize RCS files. See ci(1) for
- -z, --zone=zone
- Specifies the date output format in keyword substitution, and specifies
the default time zone for date in the -ddate option.
The zone should be empty, a numeric UTC offset, or the special
string LT for local time. The default is an empty zone,
which uses the traditional RCS format of UTC without any time zone
indication and with slashes separating the parts of the date; otherwise,
times are output in ISO 8601 format with time zone indication. For
example, if local time is January 11, 1990, 8pm Pacific Standard Time,
eight hours west of UTC, then the time is output as follows:
option time output
-z 1990/01/12 04:00:00 (default)
-zLT 1990-01-11 20:00:00-08
-z+05:30 1990-01-12 09:30:00+05:30
Strings of the form $keyword$
embedded in the text are
replaced with strings of the form
as described in
never changes an RCS or working file. It uses the effective user
for all accesses, and it does not even read the working file unless a revision
number of $
- Options prepended to the argument list, separated by spaces. See
ci(1) for details.
The working pathname and a separator line is written to the diagnostic output.
The exit status is zero if and only if all operations were successful.
One day, there will be a whole bunch of useful examples here.
Michael Chapman <firstname.lastname@example.org>
Portions of this manual page are from ci
(1) and co
(1) by Walter F.
Tichy and Paul Eggert.
is copyright © 2004, 2005 Michael Chapman.
is released under the terms and conditions of the GNU General
Public License version 2. Please read the COPYING file carefully.