NAMEcdda2wav - dumps CD audio data into sound files with extra data verification
SYNOPSIScdda2wav [ options ][ dev=device ] [file(s) or directories]
DESCRIPTIONcdda2wav can retrieve audio tracks from CDROM drives which are capable of reading audio data digitally via SCSI (CDDA).
As cdda2wav implements strategies to work around typical defects on audio CDs it reads many disks that cannot be read by other software. As cdda2wav can use libparanoia (see -paranoia option below) to verify the data that has been read from the medium, it delivers superior quality even if the medium is dusty, scratched or if other problems occur.
As cdda2wav may be directed to write the audio data to stdout, it writes all its informational output to stderr by default. See out-fd=descriptor option below.
Default settingsCdda2wav defaults to read the first audio track from the medium and the default verbose level is set to -vtoc,summary,sectors,titles and cdda2wav by default writes *.inf files. To extract all audio tracks with quality verification, it is recommended to call:
cdda2wav -vall cddb=0 speed=4 -paranoia paraopts=proof -B
For hints on how to specify better parameters manually, see the paraopts= description below.
Device namingMost users do not need to care about device naming. If no dev= option was specified, cdda2wav implements auto target support and automagically finds the drive when exactly one CD-ROM type drive is available in the system. When more than one CD-ROM type drive exists, a list of possible device name parameters may be retrieved with cdda2wav -scanbus or from the target example from the output of cdda2wav dev=help, then the dev= parameter may be set based on the device listing.
The device parameter to the dev= option explained below refers to the SCSI CAM standard notation for scsibus/target/lun of the CD/DVD/BluRay-Recorder. If a file /etc/default/cdrecord exists, the parameter to the dev= option may also be a drive name label in said file (see FILES section).
The default is stereo recording.
The quality indicators in detail:
The paraopts= parameters in detail:
OS Interface options
The latter is not recommended as it gives lower quality and only works on a limited number of platforms.
ENVIRONMENT VARIABLESSome defaults for cdda2wav are compiled in and depend on the Makefile others on the environment variable settings.
EXIT STATUScdda2wav uses the following exit codes to indicate various degrees of success:
DISCUSSIONcdda2wav is able to read parts of an audio CD or multimedia CDROM (containing audio parts) directly digitally. These parts can be written to a file, a pipe, or to a sound device.
cdda2wav stands for CDDA to WAV (where CDDA stands for compact disc digital audio and WAV is a sound sample format introduced by MS Windows). It allows copying CDDA audio data from the CDROM drive into a file in WAV or other formats.
Some versions of cdda2wav may try to get higher real-time scheduling priorities to ensure smooth (uninterrupted) operation. These priorities are available for super users and are higher than those of 'normal' processes. Thus delays are minimized.
If you only have one CDROM and it is loaded with an audio CD, you may simply invoke cdda2wav and it will create the sound file audio.wav recording the whole track beginning with track 1 in stereo at 16 bit at 44100 Hz sample rate, if your file system has enough space free. Otherwise recording time will be limited. For details see files README and README.INSTALL.
If you have more then one CD-ROM type drive in the system, you need to specify the dev= option.
HINTS ON OPTIONSMost of the options are used to control the format of the WAV file. In the following text most of them are discussed in a more verbose way.
Select Devicedev=device selects the CDROM drive device to be used. The specifier given should correspond to the selected interface (see below). For the cooked_ioctl interface this is the cdrom device descriptor. The SCSI devices used with the generic SCSI interface however are addressed with their SCSI-Bus, SCSI-Id, and SCSI-Lun instead of the generic SCSI device descriptor. One example for a SCSI CDROM drive on bus 0 with SCSI ID 3 and lun 0 is dev=0,3,0.
Select Auxiliary device-A auxdevice may be needed in some rare cases for CD-Extra handling. Cdda2wav usually has no problem to get the multi-session information for CD-Extra using raw SCSI commands. For Non-SCSI-CDROM drives this is the same device as given by dev= (see above). For SCSI-CDROM drives it is the CDROM drive (SCSI) device (i.e. /dev/sr0 ) corresponding to the SCSI device (i.e. 0,3,0 ). It has to match the device used for sampling.
Select Interface-I interface selects the CDROM drive communication method. This interface method is typically automatically selected from the device name. For SCSI drives generic_scsi is used (cooked_ioctl may not be available for all devices). Valid names are generic_scsi and cooked_ioctl. The first uses the generic SCSI interface, the latter uses the ioctl of the CDROM driver. The latter variant works only when the kernel driver supports CDDA reading. This entry has to match the selected CDROM device (see above).
Enable echo to soundcard-e copies audio data to the sound card while recording, so you hear it nearly simultaneously. The soundcard gets the same data that is recorded. This is time critical, so it works best with the -q option. To use cdda2wav as a pseudo CD player without recording in a file you could use
cdda2wav -q -e -t2 -d0 -N
to play the whole second track or
cdda2wav -q -e -B -N
to play the whole disk. This feature reduces the recording speed to at most onefold speed.
Change pitch of echoed audio-p percentage changes the pitch of all audio echoed to a sound card. Only the copy to the soundcard is affected, the recorded audio samples in a file remain the same. Normal pitch, which is the default, is given by 100. Lower percentages correspond to lower pitches, i.e. -p 50 transposes the audio output one octave lower. See also the script pitchplay as an example. This option was contributed by Raul Sobon.
Select mono or stereo recording-m or -c 1 selects mono recording (both stereo channels are mixed), -s or -c 2 or -c s selects stereo recording. Parameter s will swap both sound channels.
Select maximum quality-x will set stereo, 16 bits per sample at 44.1 kHz (full CD quality). Note that other format options given later can change this setting.
Select sample quality-b 8 specifies 8 bit (1 Byte) for each sample in each channel; -b 12 specifies 12 bit (2 Byte) for each sample in each channel; -b 16 specifies 16 bit (2 Byte) for each sample in each channel (Ensure that your sample player or sound card is capable of playing 12-bit or 16-bit samples). Selecting 12 or 16 bits doubles file size. 12-bit samples are aligned to 16-bit samples, so they waste some disk space.
Select sample rate-r samplerate selects a sample rate. samplerate can be in a range between 900 and 44100. Option -R lists all available rates.
Select sample rate divider-a divider selects a sample rate divider. divider can be from 1 to 50.5 in steps of 0.5. Option -R lists all available rates.
To make the sound smoother at lower sampling rates, cdda2wav sums over n samples (where n is the specific dividend). So for 22050 Hertz output we have to sum over 2 samples, for 900 Hertz we have to sum over 49 samples. This cancels higher frequencies. Standard sector size of an audio CD (ignoring additional information) is 2352 Bytes. In order to finish summing for an output sample at sector boundaries the rates above have to be chosen. Arbitrary sampling rates in high quality would require some interpolation scheme, which needs much more sophisticated programming.
List a table of all sampling rates-R shows a list of all sample rates and their dividers. Dividers can range from 1 to 50.5 in steps of 0.5.
Select start track and optionally end track-t n+m selects n as the start track and optionally m as the last track of a range to be recorded. These tracks must be from the table of contents. This sets the track where recording begins. Recording can advance through the following tracks as well (limited by the optional end track or otherwise depending on recording time). Whether one file or different files are then created depends on the -B option (see below).
Select start index-i n selects the index to start recording with. Indices other than 1 will invoke the index scanner, which will take some time to find the correct start position. An offset may be given additionally (see below).
Set recording duration-d n sets recording time to n seconds or set recording time for whole track if n is zero. In order to specify the duration in frames (sectors) also, the argument can have an appended 'f'. Then the numerical argument is to be taken as frames (sectors) rather than seconds. Please note that if track ranges are being used they define the recording time as well thus overriding any -d option specified times.
Recording time is defined as the time the generated sample will play (at the defined sample rate). Since it's related to the amount of generated samples, it's not the time of the sampling process itself (which can be less or more). It's neither strictly coupled with the time information on the audio CD (shown by your hifi CD player). Differences can occur by the usage of the -o option (see below). Notice that recording time will be shortened, unless enough disk space exists. Recording can be aborted at anytime by pressing the break character (signal SIGQUIT).
Record all tracks of a complete audio CD in separate files-B copies each track into a separate file. A base name can be given. File names have an appended track number and an extension corresponding to the audio format. To record all audio tracks of a CD, use a sufficient high duration (i.e. -d99999).
Set start sector offset-o sectors increments start sector of the track by sectors. By this option you are able to skip a certain amount at the beginning of a track so you can pick exactly the part you want. Each sector runs for 1/75 seconds, so you have very fine control. If your offset is so high that it would not fit into the current track, a warning message is issued and the offset is ignored. Recording time is not reduced. (To skip introductory quiet passages automagically, use the -w option see below.)
Wait for signal option-w Turning on this option will suppress all silent output at startup, reducing possibly file size. cdda2wav will watch for any signal in the output signal and switches on writing to file.
Find extreme samples-F Turning on this option will display the most negative and the most positive sample value found during recording for both channels. This can be useful for readjusting the volume. The values shown are not reset at track boundaries, they cover the complete sampling process. They are taken from the original samples and have the same format (i.e. they are independent of the selected output format).
Find if input samples are in mono-G If this option is given, input samples for both channels will be compared. At the end of the program the result is printed. Differences in the channels indicate stereo, otherwise when both channels are equal it will indicate mono.
Undo the pre-emphasis in the input samples-T Some older audio CDs are recorded with a modified frequency response called pre-emphasis. This is found mostly in classical recordings. The correction can be seen in the flags of the Table Of Contents often. But there are recordings, that show this setting only in the subchannels. If this option is given, the index scanner will be started, which reads the q-subchannel of each track. If pre-emphasis is indicated in the q-subchannel of a track, but not in the TOC, pre-emphasis will be assumed to be present, and subsequently a reverse filtering is done for this track before the samples are written into the audio file.
Set audio format-O audiotype can be wav (for wav files) or au or sun (for sun PCM files) or cdr or raw (for headerless files to be used for cd writers). All file samples are coded in linear pulse code modulation (as done in the audio compact disc format). This holds for all audio formats. Wav files are compatible to Wind*ws sound files, they have lsb,msb byte order which is the opposite byte order to the one used on the audio cd. The default filename extension is '.wav'. Sun type files are not like the older common logarithmically coded .au files, but instead as mentioned above linear PCM is used. The byte order is msb,lsb to be compatible. The default filename extension is '.au'. The AIFF and the newer variant AIFC from the Apple/SGI world store their samples in bigendian format (msb,lsb). In AIFC no compression is used. Finally the easiest 'format', the cdr aka raw format. It is done per default in msb,lsb byte order to satisfy the order wanted by most cd writers. Since there is no header information in this format, the sample parameters can only be identified by playing the samples on a soundcard or similar. The default filename extension is '.cdr' or '.raw'.
Select cdrom drive reading speed-S speed allows to switch the cdrom drive to a certain speed in order to reduce read errors. The argument is transferred verbatim to the drive. Details depend very much on the cdrom drives. An argument of 0 for example is often the default speed of the drive, a value of 1 often selects single speed.
Enable MD5 checksums-M count enables calculation of MD-5 checksum for 'count' bytes from the beginning of a track. This was introduced for quick comparisons of tracks.
Use Monty's libparanoia for reading of sectors-paranoia selects an alternate way of extracting audio sectors. Monty's library is used with the following default options:
PARANOIA_MODE_FULL, but without PARANOIA_MODE_NEVERSKIP
for details see Monty's libparanoia documentation. In this case the option -P has no effect.
Do linear or overlapping reading of sectors(This applies unless option -paranoia is used.) -P sectors sets the given number of sectors for initial overlap sampling for jitter correction. Two cases are to be distinguished. For nonzero values, some sectors are read twice to enable cdda2wav's jitter correction. If an argument of zero is given, no overlap sampling will be used. For nonzero overlap sectors cdda2wav dynamically adjusts the setting during sampling (like cdparanoia does). If no match can be found, cdda2wav retries the read with an increased overlap. If the amount of jitter is lower than the current overlapped samples, cdda2wav reduces the overlap setting, resulting in a higher reading speed. The argument given has to be lower than the total number of sectors per request (see option -n below). Cdda2wav will check this setting and issues a error message otherwise. The case of zero sectors is nice on low load situations or errorfree (perfect) cdrom drives and perfect (unscratched) audio cds.
Set the transfer size-n sectors will set the transfer size to the specified sectors per request.
Set number of ring buffer elements-l buffers will allocate the specified number of ring buffer elements.
Set endianess of input samples-C endianess will override the default settings of the input format. Endianess can be set explicitly to "little", "big" or "machine" or to the automatic endianess detection based on voting with "guess".
Set endianess of output samples-E endianess (endianess can be "little", "big" or "machine") will override the default settings of the output format.
Verbose option-v itemlist prints more information. A list allows selection of different information items.
To combine several requests just list the suboptions separated with commas.
The table of contentsThe display will show the table of contents with number of tracks and total time (displayed in mm:ss.hh format, mm=minutes, ss=seconds, hh=rounded 1/100 seconds). The following list displays track number and track time for each entry. The summary gives a line per track describing the type of the track.
The track column holds the track number. preemphasis shows if that track has been given a non linear frequency response. NOTE: You can undo this effect with the -T option. copy-permitted indicates if this track is allowed to copy. tracktype can be data or audio. On multimedia CDs (except hidden track CDs) both of them should be present. channels is defined for audio tracks only. There can be two or four channels.
No file output-N this debugging option switches off writing to a file.
No infofile generation-H this option switches off creation of an info file and a cddb file.
Generation of simple output for gui frontends-g this option switches on simple line formatting, which is needed to support gui frontends (like xcd-roast).
Verbose SCSI logging-V this option switches on logging of SCSI commands. This will produce a lot of output (when SCSI devices are being used). This is needed for debugging purposes. The format is the same as being used with the cdrecord program, see cdrecord(1) for more information.
Quiet option-q suppresses all screen output except error messages. That reduces cpu time resources.
Just show information option-J does not write a file, it only prints information about the disc (depending on the -v option). This is just for information purposes.
Lookup album and track titles option-L cddbp mode Cdda2wav tries to retrieve performer, album-, and track titles from a cddbp server. The default server right now is 'freedb.freedb.org'. It is planned to have more control over the server handling later. The parameter defines how multiple entries are handled:
Set server for title lookupscddbp-server servername When using -L or -cddb, the server being contacted can be set with this option.
Set portnumber for title lookupscddbp-port portnumber When using -L or -cddb, the server port being contacted can be set with this option.
HINTS ON USAGEDon't create samples you cannot read. First check your sample player software and sound card hardware. I experienced problems with very low sample rates (stereo <= 1575 Hz, mono <= 3675 Hz) when trying to play them with standard WAV players for sound blaster (maybe they are not legal in WAV format). Most CD-Writers insist on audio samples in a bigendian format. Now cdda2wav supports the -E endianess option to control the endianess of the written samples.
If your hardware is fast enough to run cdda2wav uninterrupted and your CD drive is one of the 'perfect' ones, you will gain speed when switching all overlap sampling off with the -P 0 option. Further fine tuning can be done with the -n sectors option. You can specify how much sectors should be requested in one go.
Cdda2wav supports pipes. Use a filename of - to let cdda2wav output its samples to standard output.
Conversion to other sound formats is possible using the sox program package (it should no longer be necessary to use sox -x to change the byte order of samples; see option -E to change the output byteorder).
If you want to sample more than one track into different files in one run, this is currently possible with the -B option. When recording time exceeds the track limit a new file will be opened for the next track.
FILESCdda2wav can generate a lot of files for various purposes.
Audio files:There are audio files containing samples with default extensions .wav, .au, .aifc, .aiff, and .cdr according to the selected sound format. These files are not generated when option (-N) is given. Multiple files may be written when the bulk copy option (-B) is used. Individual file names can be given as arguments. If the number of file names given is sufficient to cover all included audio tracks, the file names will be used verbatim. Otherwise, if there are less file names than files needed to write the included tracks, the part of the file name before the extension is extended with '_dd' where dd represents the current track number.
Cddb and Cdindex files:If cdda2wav detects cd-extra or cd-text (album/track) title information, then .cddb, .cdindex and .cdtext files are generated unless suppressed by the option -H. They contain suitable formatted entries for submission to audio cd track title databases in the Internet. The CDINDEX and CDDB(tm) systems are currently supported. For more information please visit www.musicbrainz.org and www.freedb.com.
Inf files:The inf files describe the sample files and the part of the audio cd it was taken from. They are a means to transfer information to a cd burning program like cdrecord. For example, if the original audio cd had pre-emphasis enabled, and cdda2wav -T did remove the pre-emphasis, then the inf file has pre-emphasis not set (since the audio file does not have it anymore), while the .cddb and the .cdindex have pre-emphasis set as the original does.
WARNINGIMPORTANT: it is prohibited to sell copies of copyrighted material by noncopyright holders. This program may not be used to circumvent copyrights. The user acknowledges this constraint when using the software.
BUGSThe index scanner may give timeouts.
The resampling (rate conversion code) uses polynomial interpolation, which is not optimal.
Cdda2wav should use threads.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSThanks go to Project MODE (http://www.mode.net/) and Fraunhofer Institut fuer integrierte Schaltungen (FhG-IIS) (http://www.iis.fhg.de/) for financial support. Plextor Europe and Ricoh Japan provided cdrom disk drives and cd burners which helped a lot to develop this software. Rammi has helped a lot with the debugging and showed a lot of stamina when hearing 100 times the first 16 seconds of the first track of the Krupps CD. Libparanoia contributed by Monty (Christopher Montgomery) email@example.com.
AUTHORHeiko Eissfeldt firstname.lastname@example.org (1993-2004,2015)
Joerg Schilling D-13353 Berlin Germany
SOURCE DOWNLOADA frequently updated source code for the cdrtools is included in the schilytools project and may be retrieved from the schilytools project at Sourceforge at:
The download directory is:
Check for the schily-*.tar.bz2 archives.
Less frequently updated source code for the cdrtools is at:
Separate project informations for the cdrtools project may be retrieved from:
INTERFACE STABILITYThe interfaces provided by cdda2wav are designed for long term stability. As cdda2wav depends on interfaces provided by the underlying operating system, the stability of the interfaces offered by cdda2wav depends on the interface stability of the OS interfaces. Modified interfaces in the OS may enforce modified interfaces in cdda2wav.
Visit the GSP FreeBSD Man Page Interface.