htpasswd - Manage user files for basic authentication
] [ -i
] [ -m
] [ -C cost
] [ -D
] passwdfile username
] [ -m
| - s
] [ -C cost
] [ -D
] passwdfile username password
] [ -m
| - s
] [ -C cost
| - p
] [ -C cost
is used to create and update the flat-files used to store
usernames and password for basic authentication of HTTP users. If
cannot access a file, such as not being able to write to the
output file or not being able to read the file in order to update it, it
returns an error status and makes no changes.
Resources available from the Apache HTTP server can be restricted to just the
users listed in the files created by htpasswd
. This program can only
manage usernames and passwords stored in a flat-file. It can encrypt and
display password information for use in other types of data stores, though. To
use a DBM database see dbmmanage or htdbm.
encrypts passwords using either bcrypt, a version of MD5
modified for Apache, SHA1, or the system's crypt()
managed by htpasswd
may contain a mixture of different encoding types
of passwords; some user records may have bcrypt or MD5-encrypted passwords
while others in the same file may have passwords encrypted with
This manual page only lists the command line arguments. For details of the
directives necessary to configure user authentication in httpd see the Apache
manual, which is part of the Apache distribution or can be found at
- Use batch mode; i.e., get the password from the command line rather
than prompting for it. This option should be used with extreme care, since
the password is clearly visible on the command line. For script use
see the -i option. Available in 2.4.4 and later.
- Read the password from stdin without verification (for script usage).
- Create the passwdfile. If passwdfile already exists, it is
rewritten and truncated. This option cannot be combined with the -n
- Display the results on standard output rather than updating a file. This
is useful for generating password records acceptable to Apache for
inclusion in non-text data stores. This option changes the syntax of the
command line, since the passwdfile argument (usually the first one)
is omitted. It cannot be combined with the -c option.
- Use MD5 encryption for passwords. This is the default (since version
- Use bcrypt encryption for passwords. This is currently considered to be
- This flag is only allowed in combination with -B (bcrypt
encryption). It sets the computing time used for the bcrypt algorithm
(higher is more secure but slower, default: 5, valid: 4 to 31).
- Use crypt() encryption for passwords. This is not supported by the
httpd server on Windows and Netware. This algorithm limits the password
length to 8 characters. This algorithm is insecure by today's
standards. It used to be the default algorithm until version 2.2.17.
- Use SHA encryption for passwords. Facilitates migration from/to Netscape
servers using the LDAP Directory Interchange Format (ldif). This algorithm
is insecure by today's standards.
- Use plaintext passwords. Though htpasswd will support creation on
all platforms, the httpd daemon will only accept plain text passwords on
Windows and Netware.
- Delete user. If the username exists in the specified htpasswd file, it
will be deleted.
- Verify password. Verify that the given password matches the password of
the user stored in the specified htpasswd file. Available in 2.4.5 and
- Name of the file to contain the user name and password. If -c is
given, this file is created if it does not already exist, or rewritten and
truncated if it does exist.
- The username to create or update in passwdfile. If username
does not exist in this file, an entry is added. If it does exist, the
password is changed.
- The plaintext password to be encrypted and stored in the file. Only used
with the -b flag.
returns a zero status ("true") if the username and
password have been successfully added or updated in the passwdfile
if it encounters some problem accessing
if there was a syntax problem with the command line, 3
if the password was entered interactively and the verification entry didn't
if its operation was interrupted, 5
if a value is too
long (username, filename, password, or final computed record), 6
username contains illegal characters (see the Restrictions section), and
if the file is not a valid password file.
htpasswd /usr/local/etc/apache/.htpasswd-users jsmith
Adds or modifies the password for user jsmith
. The user is prompted for
the password. The password will be encrypted using the modified Apache MD5
algorithm. If the file does not exist, htpasswd
will do nothing except
return an error.
htpasswd -c /home/doe/public_html/.htpasswd jane
Creates a new file and stores a record in it for user jane
. The user is
prompted for the password. If the file exists and cannot be read, or cannot be
written, it is not altered and htpasswd
will display a message and
return an error status.
htpasswd -db /usr/web/.htpasswd-all jones Pwd4Steve
Encrypts the password from the command line ( Pwd4Steve
) using the
algorithm, and stores it in the specified file.
Web password files such as those managed by htpasswd
within the Web server's URI space -- that is, they should not be fetchable
with a browser.
This program is not safe as a setuid executable. Do not
make it setuid.
The use of the -b
option is discouraged, since when it is used the
unencrypted password appears on the command line.
When using the crypt()
algorithm, note that only the first 8 characters
of the password are used to form the password. If the supplied password is
longer, the extra characters will be silently discarded.
The SHA encryption format does not use salting: for a given password, there is
only one encrypted representation. The crypt()
and MD5 formats permute
the representation by prepending a random salt string, to make dictionary
attacks against the passwords more difficult.
The SHA and crypt()
formats are insecure by today's standards.
On the Windows platform, passwords encrypted with htpasswd
are limited to
no more than 255
characters in length. Longer passwords will be
truncated to 255 characters.
The MD5 algorithm used by htpasswd
is specific to the Apache software;
passwords encrypted using it will not be usable with other Web servers.
Usernames are limited to 255
bytes and may not include the character