Quick Navigator

Search Site

Unix VPS
A - Starter
B - Basic
C - Preferred
D - Commercial
MPS - Dedicated
Previous VPSs
* Sign Up! *

Contact Us
Online Help
Domain Status
Man Pages

Virtual Servers

Topology Map

Server Agreement
Year 2038

USA Flag



Man Pages
CSQRT(3) FreeBSD Library Functions Manual CSQRT(3)

csqrt, csqrtf, csqrtl
complex square root functions

Math Library (libm, -lm)

#include <complex.h>

double complex
csqrt(double complex z);

float complex
csqrtf(float complex z);

long double complex
csqrtl(long double complex z);

The csqrt(), csqrtf(), and csqrtl() functions compute the square root of z in the complex plane, with a branch cut along the negative real axis. In other words, csqrt(), csqrtf(), and csqrtl() always return the square root whose real part is non-negative.

These functions return the requested square root. The square root of 0 is +0 ± 0, where the imaginary parts of the input and respective result have the same sign. For infinities and NaNs, the following rules apply, with the earlier rules having precedence:
Input Result
k + infinity*I infinity + infinity*I (for all k)
-infinity + NaN*I NaN ± infinity*I
infinity + NaN*I infinity + NaN*I
k + NaN*I NaN + NaN*I
NaN + k*I NaN + NaN*I
-infinity + k*I +0 + infinity*I
infinity + k*I infinity + 0*I

For numbers with negative imaginary parts, the above special cases apply given the identity:

csqrt(conj(z)) = conj(csqrt(z))
Note that the sign of NaN is indeterminate. Also, if the real or imaginary part of the input is finite and an NaN is generated, an invalid exception will be thrown.

cabs(3), fenv(3), math(3)

The csqrt(), csqrtf(), and csqrtl() functions conform to ISO/IEC 9899:1999 (“ISO C99”).

For csqrt() and csqrtl(), inexact results are not always correctly rounded.
November 4, 2018 FreeBSD 13.1-RELEASE

Search for    or go to Top of page |  Section 3 |  Main Index

Powered by GSP Visit the GSP FreeBSD Man Page Interface.
Output converted with ManDoc.