Email::Simple - simple parsing of RFC2822 message format and headers
my $email = Email::Simple->new($text);
my $from_header = $email->header("From");
my @received = $email->header("Received");
$email->header_set("From", 'Simon Cozens <email@example.com>');
my $old_body = $email->body;
...or, to create a message from scratch...
my $email = Email::Simple->create(
header => [
From => 'firstname.lastname@example.org',
To => 'email@example.com',
Subject => 'Message in a bottle',
body => '...',
$email->header_set( 'X-Content-Container' => 'bottle/glass' );
The Email:: namespace was begun as a reaction against the increasing complexity
and bugginess of Perl's existing email modules. "Email::*" modules
are meant to be simple to use and to maintain, pared to the bone, fast,
minimal in their external dependencies, and correct.
my $email = Email::Simple->new($message, \%arg);
This method parses an email from a scalar containing an RFC2822 formatted
message and returns an object. $message may be a reference to a message
string, in which case the string will be altered in place. This can result in
significant memory savings.
If you want to create a message from scratch, you should use the
Valid arguments are:
header_class - the class used to create new header objects
The named module is not 'require'-ed by Email::Simple!
my $email = Email::Simple->create(header => [ @headers ], body => '...');
This method is a constructor that creates an Email::Simple object from a set of
named parameters. The "header" parameter's value is a list reference
containing a set of headers to be created. The "body" parameter's
value is a scalar value holding the contents of the message body. Line endings
in the body will normalized to CRLF.
If no "Date" header is specified, one will be provided for you based
on the "gmtime" of the local machine. This is because the
"Date" field is a required header and is a pain in the neck to
create manually for every message. The "From" field is also a
required header, but it is not
provided for you.
my $header = $email->header_obj;
This method returns the object representing the email's header. For the
interface for this object, see Email::Simple::Header.
This method substitutes the given new header object for the email's existing
my @values = $email->header($header_name);
my $first = $email->header($header_name);
my $value = $email->header($header_name, $index);
In list context, this returns every value for the named header. In scalar
context, it returns the first
value for the named header. If second
parameter is specified then instead first
value it returns value at
position $index (negative $index is from the end).
$email->header_set($field, $line1, $line2, ...);
Sets the header to contain the given data. If you pass multiple lines in, you
get multiple headers, and order is retained. If no values are given to set,
the header will be removed from to the message entirely.
This is another name (and the preferred one) for "header".
This is another name (and the preferred one) for "header_set".
$email->header_raw_prepend($field => $value);
This method adds a new instance of the name field as the first field in the
my @header_names = $email->header_names;
This method returns the list of header names currently in the email object.
These names can be passed to the "header" method one-at-a-time to
get header values. You are guaranteed to get a set of headers that are unique.
You are not guaranteed to get the headers in any order at all.
For backwards compatibility, this method can also be called as headers
my @headers = $email->header_pairs;
This method returns a list of pairs describing the contents of the header. Every
other value, starting with and including zeroth, is a header name and the
value following it is the header value.
This is another name (and the preferred one) for "header_pairs".
Returns the body text of the mail.
Sets the body text of the mail.
Returns the mail as a string, reconstructing the headers.
This method returns the type of newline used in the email. It is an accessor
This returns the class used, by default, for header objects, and is provided for
subclassing. The default default is Email::Simple::Header.
Email::Simple handles only RFC2822 formatted messages. This means you cannot
expect it to cope well as the only parser between you and the outside world,
say for example when writing a mail filter for invocation from a .forward file
(for this we recommend you use Email::Filter anyway).
- Simon Cozens
- Casey West
- Ricardo SIGNES
- Brian Cassidy <firstname.lastname@example.org>
- Christian Walde <email@example.com>
- Marc Bradshaw <firstname.lastname@example.org>
- Michael Stevens <email@example.com>
- Pali <firstname.lastname@example.org>
- Ricardo SIGNES <email@example.com>
- Ronald F. Guilmette <firstname.lastname@example.org>
- William Yardley <email@example.com>
This software is copyright (c) 2003 by Simon Cozens.
This is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same
terms as the Perl 5 programming language system itself.