MIME::Types - Definition of MIME types
is a Exporter
my $mt = MIME::Types->new(...); # MIME::Types object
my $type = $mt->type('text/plain'); # MIME::Type object
my $type = $mt->mimeTypeOf('gif');
my $type = $mt->mimeTypeOf('picture.jpg');
my @types = $mt->httpAccept('text/html, application/json;q=0.1')
MIME types are used in many applications (for instance as part of e-mail and
HTTP traffic) to indicate the type of content which is transmitted. or
expected. See RFC2045 at https://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2045.txt
Sometimes detailed knowledge about a mime-type is need, however this module only
knows about the file-name extensions which relate to some filetype. It can
also be used to produce the right format: types which are not registered at
IANA need to use 'x-' prefixes.
This object administers a huge list of known mime-types, combined from various
sources. For instance, it contains all IANA
types and the knowledge of
Apache. Probably the most complete table on the net!
If your program uses fork (usually for a daemon), then you want to have the type
table initialized before you start forking. So, first call
my $mt = MIME::Types->new;
Later, each time you create this object (you may, of course, also reuse the
object you create here) you will get access to the same global table
- Create a new "MIME::Types" object which manages the data. In the
current implementation, it does not matter whether you create this object
often within your program, but in the future this may change.
db_file <installed source>
- db_file => FILENAME
- The location of the database which contains the type information. Only the
first instantiation of this object will have this parameter obeyed.
[2.10] This parameter can be globally overruled via the
"PERL_MIME_TYPE_DB" environment variable, which may be needed in
case of PAR or other tricky installations. For PAR, you probably set this
environment variable to "inc/lib/MIME/types.db"
- only_complete => BOOLEAN
- Only include complete MIME type definitions: requires at least one known
extension. This will reduce the number of entries --and with that the
amount of memory consumed-- considerably.
In your program you have to decide: the first time that you call the creator
("new") determines whether you get the full or the partial
- only_iana => BOOLEAN
- Only load the types which are currently known by IANA.
- skip_extensions => BOOLEAN
- Do not load the table to map extensions to types, which is quite
- $obj->addType($type, ...)
- Add one or more TYPEs to the set of known types. Each TYPE is a
"MIME::Type" which must be experimental: either the main-type or
the sub-type must start with "x-".
Please inform the maintainer of this module when registered types are
missing. Before version MIME::Types version 1.14, a warning was produced
when an unknown IANA type was added. This has been removed, because some
people need that to get their application to work locally... broken
- Returns a list of all defined extensions.
- Returns a list of all defined mime-types by name only. This will
not instantiate MIME::Type objects. See types()
- Returns the "MIME::Type" object which belongs to the FILENAME
(or simply its filename extension) or "undef" if the file type
is unknown. The extension is used and considered case-insensitive.
In some cases, more than one type is known for a certain filename extension.
In that case, the preferred one is taken (for an unclear definition of
example: use of mimeTypeOf()
my $types = MIME::Types->new;
my $mime = $types->mimeTypeOf('gif');
my $mime = $types->mimeTypeOf('picture.jpg');
- Returns the "MIME::Type" which describes the type related to
STRING. [2.00] Only one type will be returned.
[before 2.00] One type may be described more than once. Different extensions
may be in use for this type, and different operating systems may cause
more than one "MIME::Type" object to be defined. In scalar
context, only the first is returned.
- Returns a list of all defined mime-types. For reasons of backwards
compatibility, this will instantiate MIME::Type objects, which will be
returned. See listTypes().
- [2.07] Decompose a typical HTTP-Accept header, and sort it based on the
included priority information. Returned is a sorted list of type names,
where the highest priority type is first. The list may contain '*/*'
(accept any) or a '*' as subtype.
Ill-formated typenames are ignored. On equal qualities, the order is kept.
See RFC2616 section 14.1
my @types = $types->httpAccept('text/html, application/json;q=0.9');
- $obj->httpAcceptBest($accept|\@types, @have)
- [2.07] The $accept string is processed via httpAccept() to order
the types on preference. You may also provide a list of ordered @types
which may have been the result of that method, called earlier.
As second parameter, you pass a LIST of types you @have to offer. Those need
to be MIME::Type objects. The preferred type will get selected. When none
of these are accepted by the client, this will return "undef".
It should result in a 406 server response.
my $accept = $req->header('Accept');
my @have = map $mt->type($_), qw[text/plain text/html];
my @ext = $mt->httpAcceptBest($accept, @have);
- [2.07] Like httpAcceptBest(), but now we do not return a pair with
mime-type and filename, not just the type. If $accept is
"undef", the first filename is returned.
use HTTP::Status ':constants';
use File::Glob 'bsd_glob'; # understands blanks in filename
my @filenames = bsd_glob "$imagedir/$fnbase.*;
my $accept = $req->header('Accept');
my ($fn, $mime) = $mt->httpAcceptSelect($accept, @filenames);
my $code = defined $mime ? HTTP_NOT_ACCEPTABLE : HTTP_OK;
The next functions are provided for backward compatibility with MIME::Types
versions [0.06] and below. This code originates from Jeff Okamoto
- This function takes a media type and returns a list or anonymous array of
anonymous three-element arrays whose values are the file name suffix used
to identify it, the media type, and a content encoding.
TYPE can be a full type name (contains '/', and will be matched in full), a
partial type (which is used as regular expression) or a real regular
- Like "mimeTypeOf", but does not return an "MIME::Type"
object. If the file +type is unknown, both the returned media type and
encoding are empty strings.
example: use of function by_suffix()
use MIME::Types 'by_suffix';
my ($mediatype, $encoding) = by_suffix('image.gif');
my $refdata = by_suffix('image.gif');
my ($mediatype, $encoding) = @$refdata;
- This method has been removed: mime-types are only useful if understood by
many parties. Therefore, the IANA assigns names which can be used. In the
table kept by this "MIME::Types" module all these names, plus
the most often used temporary names are kept. When names seem to be
missing, please contact the maintainer for inclusion.
This module is part of MIME-Types distribution version 2.17, built on January
26, 2018. Website: http://perl.overmeer.net/CPAN/
Copyrights 1999-2018 by [Mark Overmeer <email@example.com>]. For other
contributors see ChangeLog.
This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under
the same terms as Perl itself. See http://dev.perl.org/licenses/