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Net::Twitter::Lite::WithAPIv1_1(3) User Contributed Perl Documentation Net::Twitter::Lite::WithAPIv1_1(3)
 

Net::Twitter::Lite::WithAPIv1_1 - A perl interface to the Twitter API v1.1

version 0.12008

  use Net::Twitter::Lite::WithAPIv1_1;
  use Scalar::Util 'blessed';
  my $nt = Net::Twitter::Lite::WithAPIv1_1->new(
      consumer_key        => $consumer_key,
      consumer_secret     => $consumer_secret,
      access_token        => $token,
      access_token_secret => $token_secret,
  );
  my $result = $nt->update('Hello, world!');
  eval {
      my $statuses = $nt->home_timeline({ since_id => $high_water, count => 100 });
      for my $status ( @$statuses ) {
          print "$status->{created_at} <$status->{user}{screen_name}> $status->{text}\n";
      }
  };
  if ( my $err = $@ ) {
      die $@ unless blessed $err && $err->isa('Net::Twitter::Lite::Error');
      warn "HTTP Response Code: ", $err->code, "\n",
           "HTTP Message......: ", $err->message, "\n",
           "Twitter error.....: ", $err->error, "\n";
  }

This module provides a perl interface to the Twitter APIs. See <https://dev.twitter.com/docs/api/1.1/overview> for a full description of the Twitter APIs.

Net::Twitter::Lite decodes the data structures returned by the Twitter API into native perl data structures (HASH references and ARRAY references). The full layout of those data structures are not documented, here. They change often, usually with the addition of new elements, and documenting all of those changes would be a significant challenge.
Instead, rely on the online Twitter API documentation and inspection of the returned data.
The Twitter API online documentation is located at <https://dev.twitter.com/docs/api/1.1/overview>.
To inspect the data, use Data::Dumper or similar module of your choice. Here's a simple example using Data::Dumper:
    use Data::Dumper;
    my $r = $nt->search($search_term);
    print Dumper $r;
For more information on perl data structures, see perlreftut, perldsc, and perllol.

new
This constructs a "Net::Twitter::Lite::WithAPIv1_1" object. It takes several named parameters, all of them optional:
clientname
The value for the "X-Twitter-Client-Name" HTTP header. It defaults to "Perl Net::Twitter::Lite::WithAPIv1_1". Note: This option has nothing to do with the "via" application byline.
clientver
The value for the "X-Twitter-Client-Version" HTTP header. It defaults to current version of this module.
clienturl
The value for the "X-Twitter-Client-URL" HTTP header. It defaults to the search.cpan.org page for the "Net::Twitter::Lite" distribution.
useragent_class
The "LWP::UserAgent" compatible class used internally to make HTTP requests. It defaults to "LWP::UserAgent". For POE based applications, consider using "LWP::UserAgent::POE".
useragent_args
An HASH ref of arguments to pass to constructor of the class specified with "useragent_class", above. It defaults to {} (an empty HASH ref).
useragent
The value for "User-Agent" HTTP header. It defaults to "Net::Twitter::Lite::WithAPIv1_1/$VERSION (Perl)", where $VERSION is the current version of this module.
source
Twitter on longer uses the "source" parameter. Support for it remains in this module for any compatible services that may use it. It was originally used by Twitter to provide an "via" application byline.
apiurl
The URL for the Twitter API. This defaults to "http://api.twitter.com/1.1". This option is available when the "API::RESTv1_1" trait is included.
upload_url
Base URL for media uploads. Defaults to "https://upload.twitter.com/1.1".
apirealm
A string containing the Twitter API realm used for Basic Authentication. It defaults to "Twitter API". This option is available when the "API::RESTv1_1" trait is included.
identica
If set to 1, "Net::Twitter::Lite::WithAPIv1_1" overrides the defaults for "apiurl", "apihost", and "apirealm" to "http://identi.ca/api", "identi.ca:80", and "Laconica API" respectively. It defaults to 0.
consumer_key
A string containing the OAuth consumer key provided by Twitter when an application is registered. This option is available when the "OAuth" trait is included.
consumer_secret
A string containing the OAuth consumer secret. This option is available when the "OAuth" trait is included.
ssl
If set to 1, an SSL connection will be used for all API calls. Defaults to 1.
netrc
(Optional) Sets the machine key to look up in ".netrc" to obtain credentials. If set to 1, will use the value of the "netrc_machine" option (below).
   # in .netrc
   machine api.twitter.com
     login YOUR_TWITTER_USER_NAME
     password YOUR_TWITTER_PASSWORD
   machine semifor.twitter.com
     login semifor
     password SUPERSECRET
   # in your perl program
   $nt = Net::Twitter::Lite::WithAPIv1_1->new(netrc => 1);
   $nt = Net::Twitter::Lite::WithAPIv1_1->new(netrc => 'semifor.twitter.com');
    
netrc_machine
(Optional) Sets the "machine" entry to look up in ".netrc" when "<netrc =" 1>> is used. Defaults to "api.twitter.com".
wrap_result
(Optional) If set to 1, this option will return an Net::Twitter::Lite::WrapResult object, which provides both the Twitter API result and the HTTP::Response object for the API call. See Net::Twitter::Lite::WrapResult for details.
credentials($username, $password)
Set the credentials for Basic Authentication. This is helpful for managing multiple accounts.

With Twitter API version 1.1, all API calls require OAuth. Other Twitter compatible services, like Identi.ca, accept Basic Authentication. So, this module provides support for both.
For OAuth authentication, provide "consumer_key" and "consumer_secret" arguments to "new". Set "access_token" and "access_token_secret" for each call, or provide them as arguments to "new".
For Basic Authentication, provide the "username" and "password" options to "new" or call the "credentials" method.
In addition to the arguments specified for each API method described below, an additional "authenticate" parameter can be passed. To request an "Authorization" header, pass "authenticate => 1"; to suppress an authentication header, pass "authenticate => 0". Even if requested, an Authorization header will not be added if there are no user credentials (username and password for Basic Authentication; access tokens for OAuth).
This is probably only useful for non-Twitter sites that use the Twitter API and support unauthenticated calls.

Most Twitter API methods take parameters. All API methods will accept a HASH ref of named parameters as specified in the Twitter API documentation. For convenience, many methods accept simple positional arguments. The positional parameter passing style is optional; you can always use the named parameters in a HASH reference if you prefer.
You may pass any number of required parameters as positional parameters. You must pass them in the order specified in the documentation for each method. Optional parameters must be passed as named parameters in a HASH reference. The HASH reference containing the named parameters must be the final parameter to the method call. Any required parameters not passed as positional parameters, must be included in the named parameter HASH reference.
For example, the REST API method "update" has one required parameter, "status". You can call "update" with a HASH ref argument:
    $nt->update({ status => 'Hello world!' });
Or, you can use the convenient, positional parameter form:
    $nt->update('Hello world!');
The "update" method also has an optional parameter, "in_reply_to_status_id". To use it, you must use the HASH ref form:
    $nt->update({ status => 'Hello world!', in_reply_to_status_id => $reply_to });
You may use the convenient positional form for the required "status" parameter with the optional parameters specified in the named parameter HASH reference:
    $nt->update('Hello world!', { in_reply_to_status_id => $reply_to });
Convenience form is provided for the required parameters of all API methods. So, these two calls are equivalent:
    $nt->friendship_exists({ user_a => $fred, user_b => $barney });
    $nt->friendship_exists($fred, $barney);
Many API methods have aliases. You can use the API method name, or any of its aliases, as you prefer. For example, these calls are all equivalent:
    $nt->friendship_exists($fred, $barney);
    $nt->relationship_exists($fred, $barney);
    $nt->follows($fred, $barney);
Aliases support both the HASH ref and convenient forms:
    $nt->follows({ user_a => $fred, user_b => $barney });

In addition to the arguments described in the Twitter API Documentation for each API method, these additional synthetic arguments are supported.
authenticate
When set to 1, an Authorization header for the API call will be provided; when set to 0, it will suppress the Authentication header. This argument overrides the defined authentication behavior for the API method. It is probably only useful for the "rate_limit_satus" method which returns different values for authenticated and unauthenticated calls. See "AUTHENTICATION" for more details.

account_settings
Parameters: none
Required: none
Returns the current trend, geo and sleep time information for the authenticating user.
Returns: HashRef
add_list_member
Parameters: list_id, slug, user_id, screen_name, owner_screen_name, owner_id
Required: none
Add a member to a list. The authenticated user must own the list to be able to add members to it. Note that lists can't have more than 500 members.
Returns: User
add_place
add_place(name, contained_within, token, lat, long)
Parameters: name, contained_within, token, lat, long, attribute:street_address, callback
Required: name, contained_within, token, lat, long
Creates a new place object at the given latitude and longitude.
Before creating a place you need to query "similar_places" with the latitude, longitude and name of the place you wish to create. The query will return an array of places which are similar to the one you wish to create, and a token. If the place you wish to create isn't in the returned array you can use the token with this method to create a new one.
Returns: Place
blocking
alias: blocks_list
Parameters: cursor, include_entities, skip_status
Required: none
Returns an array of user objects that the authenticating user is blocking.
Returns: ArrayRef[BasicUser]
blocking_ids
alias: blocks_ids
Parameters: cursor, stringify_ids
Required: none
Returns an array of numeric user ids the authenticating user is blocking.
Returns: ArrayRef[Int]
contributees
Parameters: user_id, screen_name, include_entities, skip_satus
Required: none
Returns an array of users that the specified user can contribute to.
Returns: ArrayRef[User]
contributors
Parameters: user_id, screen_name, include_entities, skip_satus
Required: none
Returns an array of users who can contribute to the specified account.
Returns: ArrayRef[User]
create_block
create_block(id)
Parameters: user_id, screen_name, include_entities, skip_status
Required: id
Blocks the user specified in the "user_id" or "screen_name" parameter as the authenticating user. Returns the blocked user when successful. You can find out more about blocking in the Twitter Support Knowledge Base.
Returns: BasicUser
create_favorite
create_favorite(id)
Parameters: id, include_entities
Required: id
Favorites the status specified in the ID parameter as the authenticating user. Returns the favorite status when successful.
Returns: Status
create_friend
alias: follow
alias: follow_new
alias: create_friendship
Parameters: user_id, screen_name, follow
Required: none
Follows the user specified in the "user_id" or "screen_name" parameter as the authenticating user. Returns the befriended user when successful. Returns a string describing the failure condition when unsuccessful.
Returns: BasicUser
create_list
create_list(name)
Parameters: list_id, slug, name, mode, description, owner_screen_name, owner_id
Required: name
Creates a new list for the authenticated user. Note that you can't create more than 20 lists per account.
Returns: List
create_saved_search
create_saved_search(query)
Parameters: query
Required: query
Creates a saved search for the authenticated user.
Returns: SavedSearch
delete_list
Parameters: owner_screen_name, owner_id, list_id, slug
Required: none
Deletes the specified list. The authenticated user must own the list to be able to destroy it.
Returns: List
delete_list_member
alias: remove_list_member
Parameters: list_id, slug, user_id, screen_name, owner_screen_name, owner_id
Required: none
Removes the specified member from the list. The authenticated user must be the list's owner to remove members from the list.
Returns: User
destroy_block
destroy_block(id)
Parameters: user_id, screen_name, include_entities, skip_status
Required: id
Un-blocks the user specified in the "user_id" or "screen_name" parameter as the authenticating user. Returns the un-blocked user when successful.
Returns: BasicUser
destroy_direct_message
destroy_direct_message(id)
Parameters: id, include_entities
Required: id
Destroys the direct message specified in the required ID parameter. The authenticating user must be the recipient of the specified direct message.
Important: this method requires an access token with RWD (read, write, and direct message) permissions.
Returns: DirectMessage
destroy_favorite
destroy_favorite(id)
Parameters: id, include_entities
Required: id
Un-favorites the status specified in the ID parameter as the authenticating user. Returns the un-favorited status.
Returns: Status
destroy_friend
destroy_friend(id)
alias: unfollow
alias: destroy_friendship
Parameters: user_id, screen_name
Required: id
Discontinues friendship with the user specified in the "user_id" or "screen_name" parameter as the authenticating user. Returns the un-friended user when successful. Returns a string describing the failure condition when unsuccessful.
Returns: BasicUser
destroy_saved_search
destroy_saved_search(id)
alias: delete_saved_search
Parameters: id
Required: id
Destroys a saved search. The search, specified by "id", must be owned by the authenticating user.
Returns: SavedSearch
destroy_status
destroy_status(id)
Parameters: id, trim_user
Required: id
Destroys the status specified by the required ID parameter. The authenticating user must be the author of the specified status.
Returns: Status
direct_messages
Parameters: since_id, max_id, count, page, include_entities, skip_status
Required: none
Returns a list of the 20 most recent direct messages sent to the authenticating user including detailed information about the sending and recipient users.
Important: this method requires an access token with RWD (read, write, and direct message) permissions.
Returns: ArrayRef[DirectMessage]
favorites
Parameters: user_id, screen_name, count, since_id, max_id, include_entities
Required: none
Returns the 20 most recent favorite statuses for the authenticating user or user specified by the ID parameter.
Returns: ArrayRef[Status]
followers
alias: followers_list
Parameters: user_id, screen_name, cursor
Required: none
Returns a cursored collection of user objects for users following the specified user.
Returns: HashRef
followers_ids
Parameters: user_id, screen_name, cursor, stringify_ids
Required: none
Returns a reference to an array of numeric IDs for every user following the specified user. The order of the IDs may change from call to call. To obtain the screen names, pass the arrayref to "lookup_users".
Use the optional "cursor" parameter to retrieve IDs in pages of 5000. When the "cursor" parameter is used, the return value is a reference to a hash with keys "previous_cursor", "next_cursor", and "ids". The value of "ids" is a reference to an array of IDS of the user's followers. Set the optional "cursor" parameter to -1 to get the first page of IDs. Set it to the prior return's value of "previous_cursor" or "next_cursor" to page forward or backwards. When there are no prior pages, the value of "previous_cursor" will be 0. When there are no subsequent pages, the value of "next_cursor" will be 0.
Returns: HashRef|ArrayRef[Int]
friends
alias: friends_list
Parameters: user_id, screen_name, cursor
Required: none
Returns a cursored collection of user objects for users followed by the specified user.
Returns: HashRef
friends_ids
alias: following_ids
Parameters: user_id, screen_name, cursor, stringify_ids
Required: none
Returns a reference to an array of numeric IDs for every user followed by the specified user. The order of the IDs is reverse chronological.
Use the optional "cursor" parameter to retrieve IDs in pages of 5000. When the "cursor" parameter is used, the return value is a reference to a hash with keys "previous_cursor", "next_cursor", and "ids". The value of "ids" is a reference to an array of IDS of the user's friends. Set the optional "cursor" parameter to -1 to get the first page of IDs. Set it to the prior return's value of "previous_cursor" or "next_cursor" to page forward or backwards. When there are no prior pages, the value of "previous_cursor" will be 0. When there are no subsequent pages, the value of "next_cursor" will be 0.
Returns: HashRef|ArrayRef[Int]
friendships_incoming
alias: incoming_friendships
Parameters: cursor, stringify_ids
Required: none
Returns an HASH ref with an array of numeric IDs in the "ids" element for every user who has a pending request to follow the authenticating user.
Returns: HashRef
friendships_outgoing
alias: outgoing_friendships
Parameters: cursor, stringify_ids
Required: none
Returns an HASH ref with an array of numeric IDs in the "ids" element for every protected user for whom the authenticating user has a pending follow request.
Returns: HashRef
geo_id
geo_id(id)
Parameters: id
Required: id
Returns details of a place returned from the "reverse_geocode" method.
Returns: HashRef
geo_search
Parameters: lat, long, query, ip, granularity, accuracy, max_results, contained_within, attribute:street_address, callback
Required: none
Search for places that can be attached to a statuses/update. Given a latitude and a longitude pair, an IP address, or a name, this request will return a list of all the valid places that can be used as the place_id when updating a status.
Conceptually, a query can be made from the user's location, retrieve a list of places, have the user validate the location he or she is at, and then send the ID of this location with a call to statuses/update.
This is the recommended method to use find places that can be attached to statuses/update. Unlike geo/reverse_geocode which provides raw data access, this endpoint can potentially re-order places with regards to the user who is authenticated. This approach is also preferred for interactive place matching with the user.
Returns: HashRef
get_configuration
Parameters: none
Required: none
Returns the current configuration used by Twitter including twitter.com slugs which are not usernames, maximum photo resolutions, and t.co URL lengths.
It is recommended applications request this endpoint when they are loaded, but no more than once a day.
Returns: HashRef
get_languages
Parameters: none
Required: none
Returns the list of languages supported by Twitter along with their ISO 639-1 code. The ISO 639-1 code is the two letter value to use if you include lang with any of your requests.
Returns: ArrayRef[Lanugage]
get_list
alias: show_list
Parameters: list_id, slug, owner_screen_name, owner_id
Required: none
Returns the specified list. Private lists will only be shown if the authenticated user owns the specified list.
Returns: List
get_lists
alias: all_subscriptions
alias: list_lists all_subscriptions
Parameters: user_id, screen_name reverse
Required: none
Returns all lists the authenticating or specified user subscribes to, including their own. The user is specified using the user_id or screen_name parameters. If no user is given, the authenticating user is used.
A maximum of 100 results will be returned by this call. Subscribed lists are returned first, followed by owned lists. This means that if a user subscribes to 90 lists and owns 20 lists, this method returns 90 subscriptions and 10 owned lists. The reverse method returns owned lists first, so with "reverse =" 1>, 20 owned lists and 80 subscriptions would be returned. If your goal is to obtain every list a user owns or subscribes to, use <list_ownerships> and/or "list_subscriptions" instead.
Returns: ArrayRef[Lists]
get_privacy_policy
Parameters: none
Required: none
Returns Twitter's privacy policy.
Returns: HashRef
get_tos
Parameters: none
Required: none
Returns the Twitter Terms of Service. These are not the same as the Developer Rules of the Road.
Returns: HashRef
home_timeline
Parameters: since_id, max_id, count, exclude_replies, contributor_details, include_entities, trim_user
Required: none
Returns the 20 most recent statuses, including retweets, posted by the authenticating user and that user's friends.
Returns: ArrayRef[Status]
list_members
Parameters: list_id, slug, owner_screen_name, owner_id, cursor, include_entities, skip_status
Required: none
Returns the members of the specified list. Private list members will only be shown if the authenticated user owns the specified list.
Returns: Hashref
list_memberships
Parameters: user_id, screen_name, cursor, filter_to_owned_lists
Required: none
Returns the lists the specified user has been added to. If user_id or screen_name are not provided the memberships for the authenticating user are returned.
Returns: Hashref
list_statuses
Parameters: list_id, slug, owner_screen_name, owner_id, since_id, max_id, count, include_entities, include_rts
Required: none
Returns tweet timeline for members of the specified list. Historically, retweets were not available in list timeline responses but you can now use the include_rts=true parameter to additionally receive retweet objects.
Returns: ArrayRef[Status]
list_subscribers
Parameters: list_id, slug, owner_screen_name, owner_id, cursor, include_entities, skip_status
Required: none
Returns the subscribers of the specified list. Private list subscribers will only be shown if the authenticated user owns the specified list.
Returns: Hashref
lookup_friendships
Parameters: user_id, screen_name
Required: none
Returns the relationship of the authenticating user to the comma separated list or ARRAY ref of up to 100 screen_names or user_ids provided. Values for connections can be: following, following_requested, followed_by, none. Requires authentication.
Returns: ArrayRef
lookup_users
Parameters: user_id, screen_name, include_entities
Required: none
Return up to 100 users worth of extended information, specified by either ID, screen name, or combination of the two. The author's most recent status (if the authenticating user has permission) will be returned inline. This method is rate limited to 1000 calls per hour.
This method will accept user IDs or screen names as either a comma delimited string, or as an ARRAY ref. It will also accept arguments in the normal HASHREF form or as a simple list of named arguments. I.e., any of the following forms are acceptable:
    $nt->lookup_users({ user_id => '1234,6543,3333' });
    $nt->lookup_users(user_id => '1234,6543,3333');
    $nt->lookup_users({ user_id => [ 1234, 6543, 3333 ] });
    $nt->lookup_users({ screen_name => 'fred,barney,wilma' });
    $nt->lookup_users(screen_name => ['fred', 'barney', 'wilma']);
    $nt->lookup_users(
        screen_name => ['fred', 'barney' ],
        user_id     => '4321,6789',
    );
Returns: ArrayRef[User]
members_create_all
alias: add_list_members
Parameters: list_id, slug, owner_screen_name, owner_id
Required: none
Adds multiple members to a list, by specifying a reference to an array or a comma-separated list of member ids or screen names. The authenticated user must own the list to be able to add members to it. Note that lists can't have more than 500 members, and you are limited to adding up to 100 members to a list at a time with this method.
Returns: List
members_destroy_all
alias: remove_list_members
Parameters: list_id, slug, user_id, screen_name, owner_screen_name, owner_id
Required: none
Removes multiple members from a list, by specifying a reference to an array of member ids or screen names, or a string of comma separated user ids or screen names. The authenticated user must own the list to be able to remove members from it. Note that lists can't have more than 500 members, and you are limited to removing up to 100 members to a list at a time with this method.
Please note that there can be issues with lists that rapidly remove and add memberships. Take care when using these methods such that you are not too rapidly switching between removals and adds on the same list.
Returns: List
mentions
alias: replies
alias: mentions_timeline
Parameters: since_id, max_id, count, trim_user, include_entities, contributor_details
Required: none
Returns the 20 most recent mentions (statuses containing @username) for the authenticating user.
Returns: ArrayRef[Status]
new_direct_message
new_direct_message(text)
Parameters: user_id, screen_name, text
Required: text
Sends a new direct message to the specified user from the authenticating user. Requires both the user and text parameters. Returns the sent message when successful. In order to support numeric screen names, the "screen_name" or "user_id" parameters may be used instead of "user".
Important: this method requires an access token with RWD (read, write, and direct message) permissions.
Returns: DirectMessage
no_retweet_ids
Parameters: none
Required: none
Returns an ARRAY ref of user IDs for which the authenticating user does not want to receive retweets.
Returns: ArrayRef[UserIDs]
oembed
Parameters: id, url, maxwidth, hide_media, hide_thread, omit_script, align, related, lang
Required: none
Returns information allowing the creation of an embedded representation of a Tweet on third party sites. See the oEmbed <http://oembed.com/> specification for information about the response format.
While this endpoint allows a bit of customization for the final appearance of the embedded Tweet, be aware that the appearance of the rendered Tweet may change over time to be consistent with Twitter's Display Requirements <https://dev.twitter.com/terms/display-requirements>. Do not rely on any class or id parameters to stay constant in the returned markup.
Returns: Status
profile_banner
Parameters: user_id, screen_name
Required: none
Returns a hash reference mapping available size variations to URLs that can be used to retrieve each variation of the banner.
Returns: HashRef
rate_limit_status
rate_limit_status(resources)
Parameters: resources
Required: none
Returns the remaining number of API requests available to the authenticated user before the API limit is reached for the current hour.
Use "->rate_limit_status({ authenticate => 0 })" to force an unauthenticated call, which will return the status for the IP address rather than the authenticated user. (Note: for a web application, this is the server's IP address.)
Returns: RateLimitStatus
remove_profile_banner
Parameters: none
Required: none
Removes the uploaded profile banner for the authenticating user.
Returns: Nothing
report_spam
report_spam(id)
Parameters: user_id, screen_name
Required: id
The user specified in the id is blocked by the authenticated user and reported as a spammer.
Returns: User
retweet
retweet(id)
Parameters: idtrim_user
Required: id
Retweets a tweet.
Returns: Status
retweets
retweets(id)
Parameters: id, count, trim_user
Required: id
Returns up to 100 of the first retweets of a given tweet.
Returns: Arrayref[Status]
retweets_of_me
alias: retweeted_of_me
Parameters: since_id, max_id, count, trim_user, include_entities, include_user_entities
Required: none
Returns the 20 most recent tweets of the authenticated user that have been retweeted by others.
Returns: ArrayRef[Status]
reverse_geocode
reverse_geocode(lat, long)
Parameters: lat, long, accuracy, granularity, max_results, callback
Required: lat, long
Search for places (cities and neighborhoods) that can be attached to a statuses/update. Given a latitude and a longitude, return a list of all the valid places that can be used as a place_id when updating a status. Conceptually, a query can be made from the user's location, retrieve a list of places, have the user validate the location he or she is at, and then send the ID of this location up with a call to statuses/update.
There are multiple granularities of places that can be returned -- "neighborhoods", "cities", etc. At this time, only United States data is available through this method.
lat
Required. The latitude to query about. Valid ranges are -90.0 to +90.0 (North is positive) inclusive.
long
Required. The longitude to query about. Valid ranges are -180.0 to +180.0 (East is positive) inclusive.
accuracy
Optional. A hint on the "region" in which to search. If a number, then this is a radius in meters, but it can also take a string that is suffixed with ft to specify feet. If this is not passed in, then it is assumed to be 0m. If coming from a device, in practice, this value is whatever accuracy the device has measuring its location (whether it be coming from a GPS, WiFi triangulation, etc.).
granularity
Optional. The minimal granularity of data to return. If this is not passed in, then "neighborhood" is assumed. "city" can also be passed.
max_results
Optional. A hint as to the number of results to return. This does not guarantee that the number of results returned will equal max_results, but instead informs how many "nearby" results to return. Ideally, only pass in the number of places you intend to display to the user here.
Returns: HashRef
saved_searches
Parameters: none
Required: none
Returns the authenticated user's saved search queries.
Returns: ArrayRef[SavedSearch]
search
search(q)
Parameters: q, count, callback, lang, locale, rpp, since_id, max_id, until, geocode, result_type, include_entities
Required: q
Returns a HASH reference with some meta-data about the query including the "next_page", "refresh_url", and "max_id". The statuses are returned in "results". To iterate over the results, use something similar to:
    my $r = $nt->search($searh_term);
    for my $status ( @{$r->{statuses}} ) {
        print "$status->{text}\n";
    }
Returns: HashRef
sent_direct_messages
alias: direct_messages_sent
Parameters: since_id, max_id, page, count, include_entities
Required: none
Returns a list of the 20 most recent direct messages sent by the authenticating user including detailed information about the sending and recipient users.
Important: this method requires an access token with RWD (read, write, and direct message) permissions.
Returns: ArrayRef[DirectMessage]
show_direct_message
show_direct_message(id)
Parameters: id
Required: id
Returns a single direct message, specified by an id parameter. Like the "direct_messages" request, this method will include the user objects of the sender and recipient. Requires authentication.
Important: this method requires an access token with RWD (read, write, and direct message) permissions.
Returns: HashRef
show_friendship
alias: show_relationship
Parameters: source_id, source_screen_name, target_id, target_screen_name
Required: none
Returns detailed information about the relationship between two users.
Returns: Relationship
show_list_member
alias: is_list_member
Parameters: owner_screen_name, owner_id, list_id, slug, user_id, screen_name, include_entities, skip_status
Required: none
Check if the specified user is a member of the specified list. Returns the user or undef.
Returns: Maybe[User]
show_list_subscriber
alias: is_list_subscriber
alias: is_subscriber_lists
Parameters: owner_screen_name, owner_id, list_id, slug, user_id, screen_name, include_entities, skip_status
Required: none
Returns the user if they are a subscriber.
Returns: User
show_saved_search
show_saved_search(id)
Parameters: id
Required: id
Retrieve the data for a saved search, by "id", owned by the authenticating user.
Returns: SavedSearch
show_status
show_status(id)
Parameters: id, trim_user, include_entities, include_my_retweet
Required: id
Returns a single status, specified by the id parameter. The status's author will be returned inline.
Returns: Status
show_user
Parameters: user_id, screen_name, include_entities
Required: none
Returns extended information of a given user, specified by ID or screen name as per the required id parameter. This information includes design settings, so third party developers can theme their widgets according to a given user's preferences. You must be properly authenticated to request the page of a protected user.
Returns: ExtendedUser
similar_places
similar_places(lat, long, name)
Parameters: lat, long, name, contained_within, attribute:street_address, callback
Required: lat, long, name
Locates places near the given coordinates which are similar in name.
Conceptually you would use this method to get a list of known places to choose from first. Then, if the desired place doesn't exist, make a request to "add_place" to create a new one.
The token contained in the response is the token needed to be able to create a new place.
Returns: HashRef
subscribe_list
Parameters: owner_screen_name, owner_id, list_id, slug
Required: none
Subscribes the authenticated user to the specified list.
Returns: List
list_subscriptions
Parameters: user_id, screen_name, count, cursor
Required: none
Aliases: subscriptions
Obtain a collection of the lists the specified user is subscribed to, 20 lists per page by default. Does not include the user's own lists.
Returns: ArrayRef[List]
list_ownerships
Parameters: user_id screen_name count cursor
Obtain a collection of the lists owned by the specified Twitter user. Private lists will only be shown if the authenticated user is also the owner of the lists.
Returns: Hashref
suggestion_categories
Parameters: none
Required: none
Returns the list of suggested user categories. The category slug can be used in the "user_suggestions" API method get the users in that category . Does not require authentication.
Returns: ArrayRef
trends_available
Parameters: none
Required: none
Returns the locations with trending topic information. The response is an array of "locations" that encode the location's WOEID (a Yahoo! Where On Earth ID <http://developer.yahoo.com/geo/geoplanet/>) and some other human-readable information such as a the location's canonical name and country.
For backwards compatibility, this method accepts optional "lat" and "long" parameters. You should call "trends_closest" directly, instead.
Use the WOEID returned in the location object to query trends for a specific location.
Returns: ArrayRef[Location]
trends_closest
Parameters: lat, long
Required: none
Returns the locations with trending topic information. The response is an array of "locations" that encode the location's WOEID (a Yahoo! Where On Earth ID <http://developer.yahoo.com/geo/geoplanet/>) and some other human-readable information such as a the location's canonical name and country. The results are sorted by distance from that location, nearest to farthest.
Use the WOEID returned in the location object to query trends for a specific location.
Returns: ArrayRef[Location]
trends_place
trends_place(id)
alias: trends_location
Parameters: id, exclude
Required: id
Returns the top 10 trending topics for a specific WOEID. The response is an array of "trend" objects that encode the name of the trending topic, the query parameter that can be used to search for the topic on Search, and the direct URL that can be issued against Search. This information is cached for five minutes, and therefore users are discouraged from querying these endpoints faster than once every five minutes. Global trends information is also available from this API by using a WOEID of 1.
Returns: ArrayRef[Trend]
unsubscribe_list
Parameters: list_id, slug, owner_screen_name, owner_id
Required: none
Unsubscribes the authenticated user from the specified list.
Returns: List
update
update(status)
Parameters: status, lat, long, place_id, display_coordinates, in_reply_to_status_id, trim_user
Required: status
Updates the authenticating user's status. Requires the status parameter specified. A status update with text identical to the authenticating user's current status will be ignored.
status
Required. The text of your status update. URL encode as necessary. Statuses over 140 characters will cause a 403 error to be returned from the API.
in_reply_to_status_id
Optional. The ID of an existing status that the update is in reply to. o Note: This parameter will be ignored unless the author of the tweet this parameter references is mentioned within the status text. Therefore, you must include @username, where username is the author of the referenced tweet, within the update.
lat
Optional. The location's latitude that this tweet refers to. The valid ranges for latitude is -90.0 to +90.0 (North is positive) inclusive. This parameter will be ignored if outside that range, if it is not a number, if geo_enabled is disabled, or if there not a corresponding long parameter with this tweet.
long
Optional. The location's longitude that this tweet refers to. The valid ranges for longitude is -180.0 to +180.0 (East is positive) inclusive. This parameter will be ignored if outside that range, if it is not a number, if geo_enabled is disabled, or if there not a corresponding lat parameter with this tweet.
place_id
Optional. The place to attach to this status update. Valid place_ids can be found by querying "reverse_geocode".
display_coordinates
Optional. By default, geo-tweets will have their coordinates exposed in the status object (to remain backwards compatible with existing API applications). To turn off the display of the precise latitude and longitude (but keep the contextual location information), pass "display_coordinates =" 0> on the status update.
Returns: Status
update_account_settings
Parameters: trend_location_woid, sleep_time_enabled, start_sleep_time, end_sleep_time, time_zone, lang
Required: none
Updates the authenticating user's settings.
Returns: HashRef
update_delivery_device
update_delivery_device(device)
Parameters: device, include_entities
Required: device
Sets which device Twitter delivers updates to for the authenticating user. Sending none as the device parameter will disable SMS updates.
Returns: BasicUser
update_friendship
Parameters: user_id, screen_name, device, retweets
Required: none
Allows you enable or disable retweets and device notifications from the specified user. All other values are assumed to be false. Requires authentication.
Returns: HashRef
update_list
Parameters: list_id, slug, name, mode, description, owner_screen_name, owner_id
Required: none
Updates the specified list. The authenticated user must own the list to be able to update it.
Returns: List
update_profile
Parameters: name, url, location, description, include_entities, skip_status
Required: none
Sets values that users are able to set under the "Account" tab of their settings page. Only the parameters specified will be updated; to only update the "name" attribute, for example, only include that parameter in your request.
Returns: ExtendedUser
update_profile_background_image
Parameters: image, tile, include_entities, skip_status, use
Required: none
Updates the authenticating user's profile background image. The "image" parameter must be an arrayref with the same interpretation as the "image" parameter in the "update_profile_image" method. See that method's documentation for details. The "use" parameter allows you to specify whether to use the uploaded profile background or not.
Returns: ExtendedUser
update_profile_banner
update_profile_banner(banner)
Parameters: banner, width, height, offset_left, offset_top
Required: banner
Uploads a profile banner on behalf of the authenticating user. The "image" parameter is an arrayref with the following interpretation:
  [ $file ]
  [ $file, $filename ]
  [ $file, $filename, Content_Type => $mime_type ]
  [ undef, $filename, Content_Type => $mime_type, Content => $raw_image_data ]
The first value of the array ($file) is the name of a file to open. The second value ($filename) is the name given to Twitter for the file. If $filename is not provided, the basename portion of $file is used. If $mime_type is not provided, it will be provided automatically using LWP::MediaTypes::guess_media_type().
$raw_image_data can be provided, rather than opening a file, by passing "undef" as the first array value.
Returns: Nothing
update_profile_colors
Parameters: profile_background_color, profile_text_color, profile_link_color, profile_sidebar_fill_color, profile_sidebar_border_color, include_entities, skip_status
Required: none
Sets one or more hex values that control the color scheme of the authenticating user's profile page on twitter.com. These values are also returned in the /users/show API method.
Returns: ExtendedUser
update_profile_image
update_profile_image(image)
Parameters: image, include_entities, skip_status
Required: image
Updates the authenticating user's profile image. The "image" parameter is an arrayref with the following interpretation:
  [ $file ]
  [ $file, $filename ]
  [ $file, $filename, Content_Type => $mime_type ]
  [ undef, $filename, Content_Type => $mime_type, Content => $raw_image_data ]
The first value of the array ($file) is the name of a file to open. The second value ($filename) is the name given to Twitter for the file. If $filename is not provided, the basename portion of $file is used. If $mime_type is not provided, it will be provided automatically using LWP::MediaTypes::guess_media_type().
$raw_image_data can be provided, rather than opening a file, by passing "undef" as the first array value.
Returns: ExtendedUser
upload_media
alias: upload
Parameters: media, media_data, additional_owners
Required: media or media_data
The "media" parameter is an arrayref with the following interpretation:
  [ $file ]
  [ $file, $filename ]
  [ $file, $filename, Content_Type => $mime_type ]
  [ undef, $filename, Content_Type => $mime_type, Content => $raw_image_data ]
The first value of the array ($file) is the name of a file to open. The second value ($filename) is the name given to Twitter for the file. If $filename is not provided, the basename portion of $file is used. If $mime_type is not provided, it will be provided automatically using LWP::MediaTypes::guess_media_type().
$raw_image_data can be provided, rather than opening a file, by passing "undef" as the first array value.
Or, pass base64-encoded data with the "media_data" parameter.
Returns: Hashref with media_id.
user_suggestions
user_suggestions(category)
alias: follow_suggestions
Parameters: category, lang
Required: category
Access the users in a given category of the Twitter suggested user list and return their most recent status if they are not a protected user. Currently supported values for optional parameter "lang" are "en", "fr", "de", "es", "it". Does not require authentication.
Returns: ArrayRef
user_suggestions_for
user_suggestions_for(category)
alias: follow_suggestions
Parameters: category, lang
Required: category
Access the users in a given category of the Twitter suggested user list.
Returns: ArrayRef
user_timeline
Parameters: user_id, screen_name, since_id, max_id, count, trim_user, exclude_replies, include_rts, contributor_details
Required: none
Returns the 20 most recent statuses posted by the authenticating user, or the user specified by "screen_name" or "user_id".
Returns: ArrayRef[Status]
users_search
users_search(q)
alias: find_people
alias: search_users
Parameters: q, per_page, page, count, include_entities
Required: q
Run a search for users similar to Find People button on Twitter.com; the same results returned by people search on Twitter.com will be returned by using this API (about being listed in the People Search). It is only possible to retrieve the first 1000 matches from this API.
Returns: ArrayRef[Users]
verify_credentials
Parameters: include_entities, skip_status
Required: none
Returns an HTTP 200 OK response code and a representation of the requesting user if authentication was successful; returns a 401 status code and an error message if not. Use this method to test if supplied user credentials are valid.
Returns: ExtendedUser
update_with_media
update_with_media(status, media)
Parameters: status, media[], possibly_sensitive, in_reply_to_status_id, lat, long, place_id, display_coordinates
Required: status, media
Updates the authenticating user's status and attaches media for upload.
The "media[]" parameter is an arrayref with the following interpretation:
  [ $file ]
  [ $file, $filename ]
  [ $file, $filename, Content_Type => $mime_type ]
  [ undef, $filename, Content_Type => $mime_type, Content => $raw_image_data ]
The first value of the array ($file) is the name of a file to open. The second value ($filename) is the name given to Twitter for the file. If $filename is not provided, the basename portion of $file is used. If $mime_type is not provided, it will be provided automatically using LWP::MediaTypes::guess_media_type().
$raw_image_data can be provided, rather than opening a file, by passing "undef" as the first array value.
The Tweet text will be rewritten to include the media URL(s), which will reduce the number of characters allowed in the Tweet text. If the URL(s) cannot be appended without text truncation, the tweet will be rejected and this method will return an HTTP 403 error.
Returns: Status

These methods are provided when trait "API::Search" is included in the "traits" option to "new".
search
search(q)
Parameters: q, callback, lang, locale, rpp, page, since_id, until, geocode, show_user, result_type
Required: q
Returns a HASH reference with some meta-data about the query including the "next_page", "refresh_url", and "max_id". The statuses are returned in "results". To iterate over the results, use something similar to:
    my $r = $nt->search($searh_term);
    for my $status ( @{$r->{results}} ) {
        print "$status->{text}\n";
    }
Returns: HashRef

These methods are provided when trait "API::TwitterVision" is included in the "traits" option to "new".
current_status
current_status(id)
Parameters: id, callback
Required: id
Get the current location and status of a user.
Returns: HashRef
update_twittervision
update_twittervision(location)
Parameters: location
Required: location
Updates the location for the authenticated user.
Returns: HashRef

When a Twitter API error or a network error is encountered, "Net::Twitter::Lite::Error" object is thrown. You can catch and process these exceptions by using "eval" blocks and testing $@:
    eval {
        my $statuses = $nt->friends_timeline(); # this might die!
        for my $status ( @$statuses ) {
            #...
        }
    };
    if ( $@ ) {
        # friends_timeline encountered an error
        if ( blessed $@ && $@->isa('Net::Twitter::Lite::Error') ) {
            #... use the thrown error obj
            warn $@->error;
        }
        else {
            # something bad happened!
            die $@;
        }
    }
"Net::Twitter::Lite::Error" stringifies to something reasonable, so if you don't need detailed error information, you can simply treat $@ as a string:
    eval { $nt->update($status) };
    if ( $@ ) {
        warn "update failed because: $@\n";
    }

Net::Twitter::Lite::Error
The "Net::Twitter::Lite" exception object.
<http://dev.twitter.com/rest/reference>
This is the official Twitter API documentation. It describes the methods and their parameters in more detail and may be more current than the documentation provided with this module.
LWP::UserAgent::POE
This LWP::UserAgent compatible class can be used in POE based application along with Net::Twitter::Lite to provide concurrent, non-blocking requests.
Catalyst::Authentication::Credential::Twitter
This module, by Jesse Stay, provides Twitter OAuth authentication support for the popular Catalyst web application framework.
AnyEvent::Twitter::Stream
An excellent module for Twitter Streaming API support.

Please report bugs at <https://github.com/semifor/net-twitter-lite/issues>.
Join the #net-twitter IRC channel on irc.perl.org.
Follow perl_api: <http://twitter.com/perl_api>.
Track development at <http://github.com/semifor/net-twitter-lite>.

Marc Mims <marc@questright.com> (@semifor on Twitter)

Marek Foss (@f055)

Copyright (c) 2013 Marc Mims
This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.
2016-12-06 perl v5.28.1

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