
NAMENumber::Fraction  Perl extension to model fractionsSYNOPSISuse Number::Fraction; my $f1 = Number::Fraction>new(1, 2); my $f2 = Number::Fraction>new('1/2'); my $f3 = Number::Fraction>new($f1); # clone my $f4 = Number::Fraction>new; # 0/1 or use Number::Fraction ':constants'; my $f1 = '1/2'; my $f2 = $f1; my $one = $f1 + $f2; my $half = $one  $f1; print $half; # prints '1/2' or some famous examples from Ovid or the perldoc use Number::Fraction ':constants'; print '0.1' + '0.2'  '0.3'; # except for perl6, this is the usual suspect 5.55111512312578e17 # times the mass of the sun, this would be the size of Mount Everest # just a small rounding difference my $f1 = Number::Fraction>new(6.725); my $f2 = Number::Fraction>new( 0.025); print int $f1/$f2; # the correct 269, no internal 268.99999999999994315658 and as of the latest release with unicode support my $f1 = Number::Fraction>new('3½'); my $f2 = Number::Fraction>new(4.33); my $f0 = $f1 * $f2; print $f0>to_simple; # 15⅙ and for those who love pie print '3.14159265359'>nearest(1 .. 10)>to_unicode_mixed # 3¹⁄₇ print '3.14159265359'>nearest(1 .. 1000)>to_unicode_string # ³⁵⁵⁄₁₁₃ ABSTRACTNumber::Fraction is a Perl module which allows you to work with fractions in your Perl programs.DESCRIPTIONNumber::Fraction allows you to work with fractions (i.e. rational numbers) in your Perl programs in a very natural way.It was originally written as a demonstration of the techniques of overloading. If you use the module in your program in the usual way use Number::Fraction; you can then create fraction objects using "Number::Fraction"new> in a number of ways. my $f1 = Number::Fraction>new(1, 2); creates a fraction with a numerator of 1 and a denominator of 2. my $fm = Number::Fraction>new(1, 2, 3); creates a fraction from an integer of 1, a numerator of 2 and a denominator of 3; which results in a fraction of 5/3 since fractions are normalised. my $f2 = Number::Fraction>new('1/2'); does the same thing but from a string constant. my $f3 = Number::Fraction>new($f1); makes $f3 a copy of $f1 my $f4 = Number::Fraction>new; # 0/1 creates a fraction with a denominator of 0 and a numerator of 1. If you use the alterative syntax of use Number::Fraction ':constants'; then Number::Fraction will automatically create fraction objects from string constants in your program. Any time your program contains a string constant of the form "\d+/\d+" then that will be automatically replaced with the equivalent fraction object. For example my $f1 = '1/2'; Having created fraction objects you can manipulate them using most of the normal mathematical operations. my $one = $f1 + $f2; my $half = $one  $f1; Additionally, whenever a fraction object is evaluated in a string context, it will return a string in the format x/y. When a fraction object is evaluated in a numerical context, it will return a floating point representation of its value. Fraction objects will always "normalise" themselves. That is, if you create a fraction of '2/4', it will silently be converted to '1/2'. Mixed Fractions and Unicode SupportSince version 3.0 the interpretation of strings and constants has been enriched with a few features for mixed fractions and Unicode characters.Number::Fraction now recognises a more Perlish way of entering mixed fractions which consist of an integerpart and a fraction in the form of "\d+_\d+/\d+". For example my $mixed = '2_3/4'; # two and three fourths, stored as 11/4 or my $simple = '2½'; # two and a half, stored as 5/2 Mixed fractions, either in Perl notation or with Unicode fractions can be negative, prepending it with a minussign. my $negative = '⅛'; # minus one eighth Experimental Support for ExponentiationVersion 1.13 of Number::Fraction adds experimental support for exponentiation operations. Version 3 has extended support and returns a Number::Fraction.It does a lot of cheating, but can give very useful results. And for now will try to make a real number into a Number::Fraction if that real does not have a power of ten component (like 1.234e45, thes numbers will simply fail). Such that ('5⅞' ** '1¼') ** '⅘' will produce still the right fraction! In a future version, I might use automatic rounding to a optional accuracy, so that it also works for less forced examples as the above. One could still use "nearest" to find the nearest fraction to the result of the previous computation. For example: '1/2' ** 2 # Returns a Number::Fraction ('1/4') '2/1' ** '2/1' Returns a Number::Fraction ('4/1') '2/1' ** '1/2' Returns a real number (1.414213) 0.5 ** '2/1' Returns a Number::Fraction ('1/4') 0.25 ** '1/2' Returns a Number::Fraction ('1/2') Version 3: Now With Added MooVersion 3 of Number::Fraction has been reimplemented using Moo. You should see very little difference in the way that the class works. The only difference I can see is that "new" used to return "undef" if it couldn't create a valid object from its arguments, it now dies. If you aren't sure of the values that are being passed into the constructor, then you'll want to call it within an "eval { ... }" block (or using something equivalent like Try::Tiny).METHODSimportCalled when module is "use"d. Use to optionally install constant handler.unimportBe a good citizen and uninstall constant handler when caller uses "no Number::Fraction".BUILDARGSParameter massager for Number::Fraction object. Takes the following kinds of parameters:
Dies if a Number::Fraction object can't be created. BUILDObject initialiser for Number::Fraction. Ensures that fractions are in a normalised format.to_stringReturns a string representation of the fraction in the form "numerator/denominator".to_mixedReturns a string representation of the fraction in the form "integer numerator/denominator".to_unicode_stringReturns a string representation of the fraction in the form "superscript numerator / subscript denominator". A Unicode 'FRACTION SLASH' is used instead of a normal slash.to_unicode_mixedReturns a string representation of the fraction in the form "integer superscript numerator / subscript denominator". A Unicode 'FRACTION SLASH' is used instead of a normal slash.to_halfsto_quartersto_eighthsto_thirdsto_sixthsto_fifthsReturns a string representation as a mixed fraction, rounded to the nearest possible 'half', 'quarter' ... and so on.to_simpleReturns a string representation as a mixed fraction, rounded to the nearest possible to any of the above mentioned standard fractions. NB ⅐, ⅑ or ⅒ are not being used.Optionally, one can pass in a list of wellknown denominators (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8) to choose which fractions can be used. to_numReturns a numeric representation of the fraction by calculating the sum numerator/denominator. Normal caveats about the precision of floating point numbers apply.addAdd a value to a fraction object and return a new object representing the result of the calculation.The first parameter is a fraction object. The second parameter is either another fraction object or a number. multMultiply a fraction object by a value and return a new object representing the result of the calculation.The first parameter is a fraction object. The second parameter is either another fraction object or a number. subtractSubtract a value from a fraction object and return a new object representing the result of the calculation.The first parameter is a fraction object. The second parameter is either another fraction object or a number. divDivide a fraction object by a value and return a new object representing the result of the calculation.The first parameter is a fraction object. The second parameter is either another fraction object or a number. expRaise a Number::Fraction object to a power.The first argument is a number fraction object. The second argument is another Number::Fraction object or a number. It will try to compute another new Number::Fraction object. This may fail if either numerator or denominator of the new one are getting too big. In such case the value returned is a real number. absReturns a copy of the given object with both the numerator and denominator changed to positive values.fractReturns the fraction part of a Number::Fraction object as a new Number::Fraction object.intReturns the integer part of a Number::Fraction object as a new Number::Fraction object.nearestTakes a list of integers and creates a new Number::Fraction object nearest to a fraction with a deniminator from that list.EXPORTNone by default.SEE ALSOperldoc overloadLingua::EN::Fractions AUTHORDave Cross, <dave@magsol.com>COPYRIGHT AND LICENSECopyright 200220 by Dave CrossThis library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.
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