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VMOD_STD(3) VMOD_STD(3)

vmod_std - Varnish Standard Module

import std [from "path"] ;
STRING toupper(STRING s)
STRING tolower(STRING s)
VOID set_ip_tos(INT tos)
REAL random(REAL lo, REAL hi)
VOID log(STRING s)
VOID syslog(INT priority, STRING s)
STRING fileread(STRING)
BOOL file_exists(STRING path)
VOID collect(HEADER hdr, STRING sep)
DURATION duration(STRING s, DURATION fallback)
INT integer(STRING s, INT fallback)
IP ip(STRING s, IP fallback, BOOL resolve)
REAL real(STRING s, REAL fallback)
INT real2integer(REAL r, INT fallback)
TIME real2time(REAL r, TIME fallback)
INT time2integer(TIME t, INT fallback)
REAL time2real(TIME t, REAL fallback)
BOOL healthy(BACKEND be)
INT port(IP ip)
VOID rollback(HTTP h)
VOID timestamp(STRING s)
STRING querysort(STRING)
BOOL cache_req_body(BYTES size)
STRING strstr(STRING s1, STRING s2)
TIME time(STRING s, TIME fallback)
STRING getenv(STRING name)
VOID late_100_continue(BOOL late)
BOOL syntax(REAL)
BOOL fnmatch(STRING pattern, STRING subject, BOOL pathname, BOOL noescape, BOOL period)


vmod_std contains basic functions which are part and parcel of Varnish, but which for reasons of architecture fit better in a VMOD.
One particular class of functions in vmod_std is the conversions functions which all have the form:
TYPE type(STRING, TYPE)


These functions attempt to convert STRING to the TYPE, and if that fails, they return the second argument, which must have the given TYPE.

Description
Converts the string s to uppercase.
Example
set beresp.http.scream = std.toupper("yes!");

Description
Converts the string s to lowercase.
Example
set beresp.http.nice = std.tolower("VerY");

Description
Sets the IP type-of-service (TOS) field for the current session to tos. Silently ignored if the listen address is a Unix domain socket. Please note that the TOS field is not removed by the end of the request so probably want to set it on every request should you utilize it.
Example
if (req.url ~ "^/slow/") {

std.set_ip_tos(0);
}

Description
Returns a random real number between lo and hi. This function uses the "testable" random generator in varnishd which enables determinstic tests to be run (See m00002.vtc). This function should not be used for cryptographic applications.
Example
set beresp.http.random-number = std.random(1, 100);

Description
Logs the string s to the shared memory log, using VSL tag SLT_VCL_Log.
Example
std.log("Something fishy is going on with the vhost " + req.http.host);

Description
Logs the string s to syslog tagged with priority. priority is formed by ORing the facility and level values. See your system's syslog.h file for possible values.
Notice: Unlike VCL and other functions in the std vmod, this function will not fail VCL processing for workspace overflows: For an out of workspace condition, the syslog() function has no effect.
Example
std.syslog(9, "Something is wrong");
This will send a message to syslog using LOG_USER | LOG_ALERT.

Description
Reads a file and returns a string with the content. The result is cached indefinitely per filename.
Example
synthetic("Response was served by " + std.fileread("/etc/hostname"));

Consider that the entire contents of the file appear in the string that is returned, including newlines that may result in invalid headers if std.fileread() is used to form a header. In that case, you may need to modify the string, for example with regsub():
set beresp.http.served-by = regsub(std.fileread("/etc/hostname"), "\R$", "");


Description
Returns true if path or the file pointed to by path exists, false otherwise.
Example
if (std.file_exists("/etc/return_503")) {

return (synth(503, "Varnish is in maintenance"));
}

Description
Collapses multiple hdr headers into one long header. The default separator sep is the standard comma separator to use when collapsing headers, with an additional whitespace for pretty printing.
Care should be taken when collapsing headers. In particular collapsing Set-Cookie will lead to unexpected results on the browser side.
Examples
std.collect(req.http.accept);
std.collect(req.http.cookie, "; ");
    

Description
Converts the string s to seconds. s must be quantified with ms (milliseconds), s (seconds), m (minutes), h (hours), d (days), w (weeks) or y (years) units. If conversion fails, fallback will be returned.
Example
set beresp.ttl = std.duration("1w", 3600s);

Description
Converts the string s to an integer. If conversion fails, fallback will be returned.
Example
if (std.integer(req.http.foo, 0) > 5) {

...
}

Description
Converts the string s to the first IP number returned by the system library function getaddrinfo(3). If conversion fails, fallback will be returned.
If resolve is false, getaddrinfo() is called using AI_NUMERICHOST to avoid network lookups. This makes "pure" IP strings cheaper to convert.
Example
if (std.ip(req.http.X-forwarded-for, "0.0.0.0") ~ my_acl) {

...
}

Description
Converts the string s to a real. If conversion fails, fallback will be returned.
Example
if (std.real(req.http.foo, 0.0) > 5.5) {

...
}

Description
Rounds the real r to the nearest integer, but round halfway cases away from zero (see round(3)). If conversion fails, fallback will be returned.
Example
set req.http.integer = std.real2integer(1140618699.00, 0); set req.http.posone = real2integer( 0.5, 0); # = 1.0 set req.http.negone = real2integer(-0.5, 0); # = -1.0

Description
Rounds the real r to the nearest integer (see func_real2integer) and returns the corresponding time when interpreted as a unix epoch. If conversion fails, fallback will be returned.
Example
set req.http.time = std.real2time(1140618699.00, now);

Description
Converts the time t to a integer. If conversion fails, fallback will be returned.
Example
set req.http.int = std.time2integer(now, 0);

Description
Converts the time t to a real. If conversion fails, fallback will be returned.
Example
set req.http.real = std.time2real(now, 1.0);

Description
Returns true if the backend be is healthy.

Description
Returns the port number of the IP address ip. Always returns 0 for a *.ip variable whose value is 0.0.0.0 because the listen address is a Unix domain socket.

Description
Restores the h HTTP headers to their original state.
Example
std.rollback(bereq);

Description
Introduces a timestamp in the log with the current time, using the string s as the label. This is useful to time the execution of lengthy VCL procedures, and makes the timestamps inserted automatically by Varnish more accurate.
Example
std.timestamp("curl-request");

Description
Sorts the query string for cache normalization purposes.
Example
set req.url = std.querysort(req.url);

Description
Caches the request body if it is smaller than size. Returns true if the body was cached, false otherwise.
Normally the request body is not available after sending it to the backend. By caching it is possible to retry pass operations, e.g. POST and PUT.
Example
if (std.cache_req_body(1KB)) {

...
}

Description
Returns a string beginning at the first occurrence of the string s2 in the string s1, or an empty string if s2 is not found.
Note that the comparison is case sensitive.
Example
if (std.strstr(req.url, req.http.restrict)) {

...
}
This will check if the content of req.http.restrict occurs anywhere in req.url.

Description
Converts the string s to a time. If conversion fails, fallback will be returned.
Supported formats:
"Sun, 06 Nov 1994 08:49:37 GMT"
"Sunday, 06-Nov-94 08:49:37 GMT"
"Sun Nov  6 08:49:37 1994"
"1994-11-06T08:49:37"
"784111777.00"
"784111777"
    
Example
if (std.time(resp.http.last-modified, now) < now - 1w) {

...
}

Description
Return environment variable name or the empty string.
See getenv(3)
Example
set req.http.My-Env = std.getenv("MY_ENV");
    

Description
Controls when varnish reacts to an Expect: 100-continue client request header.
Varnish always generates a 100 Continue response if requested by the client trough the Expect: 100-continue header when waiting for request body data.
But, by default, the 100 Continue response is already generated immediately after vcl_recv returns to reduce latencies under the assumption that the request body will be read eventually.
Calling std.late_100_continue(true) in vcl_recv will cause the 100 Continue response to only be sent when needed. This may cause additional latencies for processing request bodies, but is the correct behavior by strict interpretation of RFC7231.
This function has no effect outside vcl_recv and after calling std.cache_req_body() or any other function consuming the request body.
Example
vcl_recv {

std.late_100_continue(true);
if (req.method == "POST") {
std.late_100_continue(false); return (pass);
} ...
}

Description
Returns the true if VCL version is at least REAL.

BOOL fnmatch(
   STRING pattern,
   STRING subject,
   BOOL pathname=1,
   BOOL noescape=0,
   BOOL period=0
)


Description
Shell-style pattern matching; returns true if subject matches pattern, where pattern may contain wildcard characters such as * or ?.
The match is executed by the implementation of fnmatch(3) on your system. The rules for pattern matching on most systems include the following:
* matches any sequence of characters
? matches a single character
a bracket expression such as [abc] or [!0-9] is interpreted as a character class according to the rules of basic regular expressions ( not PCRE regexen), except that ! is used for character class negation instead of ^.

If pathname is true, then the forward slash character / is only matched literally, and never matches *, ? or a bracket expression. Otherwise, / may match one of those patterns. By default, pathname is true.
If noescape is true, then the backslash character \ is matched as an ordinary character. Otherwise, \ is an escape character, and matches the character that follows it in the pattern. For example, \\ matches \ when noescape is true, and \\ when false. By default, noescape is false.
If period is true, then a leading period character . only matches literally, and never matches *, ? or a bracket expression. A period is leading if it is the first character in subject; if pathname is also true, then a period that immediately follows a / is also leading (as in "/."). By default, period is false.
fnmatch() invokes VCL failure and returns false if either of pattern or subject is NULL -- for example, if an unset header is specified.
Examples
# Matches URLs such as /foo/bar and /foo/baz
if (std.fnmatch("/foo/*", req.url)) { ... }
# Matches URLs such as /foo/bar/baz and /foo/baz/quux if (std.fnmatch("/foo/*/*", bereq.url)) { ... }
# Matches /foo/bar/quux, but not /foo/bar/baz/quux if (std.fnmatch("/foo/*/quux", req.url)) { ... }
# Matches /foo/bar/quux and /foo/bar/baz/quux if (std.fnmatch("/foo/*/quux", req.url, pathname=false)) { ... }
# Matches /foo/bar, /foo/car and /foo/far if (std.fnmatch("/foo/?ar", req.url)) { ... }
# Matches /foo/ followed by a non-digit if (std.fnmatch("/foo/[!0-9]", req.url)) { ... }

varnishd(1)
vsl(7)
fnmatch(3)

Copyright (c) 2010-2017 Varnish Software AS
All rights reserved.
Author: Poul-Henning Kamp <phk@FreeBSD.org>
Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met: 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer. 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHOR AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL AUTHOR OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.



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