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ZHASHX(3) CZMQ Manual ZHASHX(3)

zhashx - Class for extended generic hash container

//  This is a stable class, and may not change except for emergencies. It
//  is provided in stable builds.
//  This class has draft methods, which may change over time. They are not
//  in stable releases, by default. Use --enable-drafts to enable.
// Destroy an item
typedef void (zhashx_destructor_fn) (
    void **item);
// Duplicate an item typedef void * (zhashx_duplicator_fn) ( const void *item);
// Compare two items, for sorting typedef int (zhashx_comparator_fn) ( const void *item1, const void *item2);
// Destroy an item. typedef void (zhashx_free_fn) ( void *data);
// Hash function for keys. typedef size_t (zhashx_hash_fn) ( const void *key);
// Serializes an item to a longstr. // The caller takes ownership of the newly created object. typedef char * (zhashx_serializer_fn) ( const void *item);
// Deserializes a longstr into an item. // The caller takes ownership of the newly created object. typedef void * (zhashx_deserializer_fn) ( const char *item_str);
// Create a new, empty hash container CZMQ_EXPORT zhashx_t * zhashx_new (void);
// Unpack binary frame into a new hash table. Packed data must follow format // defined by zhashx_pack. Hash table is set to autofree. An empty frame // unpacks to an empty hash table. CZMQ_EXPORT zhashx_t * zhashx_unpack (zframe_t *frame);
// Destroy a hash container and all items in it CZMQ_EXPORT void zhashx_destroy (zhashx_t **self_p);
// Insert item into hash table with specified key and item. // If key is already present returns -1 and leaves existing item unchanged // Returns 0 on success. CZMQ_EXPORT int zhashx_insert (zhashx_t *self, const void *key, void *item);
// Update or insert item into hash table with specified key and item. If the // key is already present, destroys old item and inserts new one. If you set // a container item destructor, this is called on the old value. If the key // was not already present, inserts a new item. Sets the hash cursor to the // new item. CZMQ_EXPORT void zhashx_update (zhashx_t *self, const void *key, void *item);
// Remove an item specified by key from the hash table. If there was no such // item, this function does nothing. CZMQ_EXPORT void zhashx_delete (zhashx_t *self, const void *key);
// Delete all items from the hash table. If the key destructor is // set, calls it on every key. If the item destructor is set, calls // it on every item. CZMQ_EXPORT void zhashx_purge (zhashx_t *self);
// Return the item at the specified key, or null CZMQ_EXPORT void * zhashx_lookup (zhashx_t *self, const void *key);
// Reindexes an item from an old key to a new key. If there was no such // item, does nothing. Returns 0 if successful, else -1. CZMQ_EXPORT int zhashx_rename (zhashx_t *self, const void *old_key, const void *new_key);
// Set a free function for the specified hash table item. When the item is // destroyed, the free function, if any, is called on that item. // Use this when hash items are dynamically allocated, to ensure that // you don't have memory leaks. You can pass 'free' or NULL as a free_fn. // Returns the item, or NULL if there is no such item. CZMQ_EXPORT void * zhashx_freefn (zhashx_t *self, const void *key, zhashx_free_fn free_fn);
// Return the number of keys/items in the hash table CZMQ_EXPORT size_t zhashx_size (zhashx_t *self);
// Return a zlistx_t containing the keys for the items in the // table. Uses the key_duplicator to duplicate all keys and sets the // key_destructor as destructor for the list. // Caller owns return value and must destroy it when done. CZMQ_EXPORT zlistx_t * zhashx_keys (zhashx_t *self);
// Return a zlistx_t containing the values for the items in the // table. Uses the duplicator to duplicate all items and sets the // destructor as destructor for the list. // Caller owns return value and must destroy it when done. CZMQ_EXPORT zlistx_t * zhashx_values (zhashx_t *self);
// Simple iterator; returns first item in hash table, in no given order, // or NULL if the table is empty. This method is simpler to use than the // foreach() method, which is deprecated. To access the key for this item // use zhashx_cursor(). NOTE: do NOT modify the table while iterating. CZMQ_EXPORT void * zhashx_first (zhashx_t *self);
// Simple iterator; returns next item in hash table, in no given order, // or NULL if the last item was already returned. Use this together with // zhashx_first() to process all items in a hash table. If you need the // items in sorted order, use zhashx_keys() and then zlistx_sort(). To // access the key for this item use zhashx_cursor(). NOTE: do NOT modify // the table while iterating. CZMQ_EXPORT void * zhashx_next (zhashx_t *self);
// After a successful first/next method, returns the key for the item that // was returned. This is a constant string that you may not modify or // deallocate, and which lasts as long as the item in the hash. After an // unsuccessful first/next, returns NULL. CZMQ_EXPORT const void * zhashx_cursor (zhashx_t *self);
// Add a comment to hash table before saving to disk. You can add as many // comment lines as you like. These comment lines are discarded when loading // the file. If you use a null format, all comments are deleted. CZMQ_EXPORT void zhashx_comment (zhashx_t *self, const char *format, ...) CHECK_PRINTF (2);
// Save hash table to a text file in name=value format. Hash values must be // printable strings; keys may not contain '=' character. Returns 0 if OK, // else -1 if a file error occurred. CZMQ_EXPORT int zhashx_save (zhashx_t *self, const char *filename);
// Load hash table from a text file in name=value format; hash table must // already exist. Hash values must printable strings; keys may not contain // '=' character. Returns 0 if OK, else -1 if a file was not readable. CZMQ_EXPORT int zhashx_load (zhashx_t *self, const char *filename);
// When a hash table was loaded from a file by zhashx_load, this method will // reload the file if it has been modified since, and is "stable", i.e. not // still changing. Returns 0 if OK, -1 if there was an error reloading the // file. CZMQ_EXPORT int zhashx_refresh (zhashx_t *self);
// Serialize hash table to a binary frame that can be sent in a message. // The packed format is compatible with the 'dictionary' type defined in // http://rfc.zeromq.org/spec:35/FILEMQ, and implemented by zproto: // // ; A list of name/value pairs // dictionary = dict-count *( dict-name dict-value ) // dict-count = number-4 // dict-value = longstr // dict-name = string // // ; Strings are always length + text contents // longstr = number-4 *VCHAR // string = number-1 *VCHAR // // ; Numbers are unsigned integers in network byte order // number-1 = 1OCTET // number-4 = 4OCTET // // Comments are not included in the packed data. Item values MUST be // strings. // Caller owns return value and must destroy it when done. CZMQ_EXPORT zframe_t * zhashx_pack (zhashx_t *self);
// Make a copy of the list; items are duplicated if you set a duplicator // for the list, otherwise not. Copying a null reference returns a null // reference. Note that this method's behavior changed slightly for CZMQ // v3.x, as it does not set nor respect autofree. It does however let you // duplicate any hash table safely. The old behavior is in zhashx_dup_v2. // Caller owns return value and must destroy it when done. CZMQ_EXPORT zhashx_t * zhashx_dup (zhashx_t *self);
// Set a user-defined deallocator for hash items; by default items are not // freed when the hash is destroyed. CZMQ_EXPORT void zhashx_set_destructor (zhashx_t *self, zhashx_destructor_fn destructor);
// Set a user-defined duplicator for hash items; by default items are not // copied when the hash is duplicated. CZMQ_EXPORT void zhashx_set_duplicator (zhashx_t *self, zhashx_duplicator_fn duplicator);
// Set a user-defined deallocator for keys; by default keys are freed // when the hash is destroyed using free(). CZMQ_EXPORT void zhashx_set_key_destructor (zhashx_t *self, zhashx_destructor_fn destructor);
// Set a user-defined duplicator for keys; by default keys are duplicated // using strdup. CZMQ_EXPORT void zhashx_set_key_duplicator (zhashx_t *self, zhashx_duplicator_fn duplicator);
// Set a user-defined comparator for keys; by default keys are // compared using strcmp. // The callback function should return zero (0) on matching // items. CZMQ_EXPORT void zhashx_set_key_comparator (zhashx_t *self, zhashx_comparator_fn comparator);
// Set a user-defined hash function for keys; by default keys are // hashed by a modified Bernstein hashing function. CZMQ_EXPORT void zhashx_set_key_hasher (zhashx_t *self, zhashx_hash_fn hasher);
// Make copy of hash table; if supplied table is null, returns null. // Does not copy items themselves. Rebuilds new table so may be slow on // very large tables. NOTE: only works with item values that are strings // since there's no other way to know how to duplicate the item value. CZMQ_EXPORT zhashx_t * zhashx_dup_v2 (zhashx_t *self);
// Self test of this class. CZMQ_EXPORT void zhashx_test (bool verbose);
#ifdef CZMQ_BUILD_DRAFT_API // *** Draft method, for development use, may change without warning *** // Same as unpack but uses a user-defined deserializer function to convert // a longstr back into item format. CZMQ_EXPORT zhashx_t * zhashx_unpack_own (zframe_t *frame, zhashx_deserializer_fn deserializer);
// *** Draft method, for development use, may change without warning *** // Same as pack but uses a user-defined serializer function to convert items // into longstr. // Caller owns return value and must destroy it when done. CZMQ_EXPORT zframe_t * zhashx_pack_own (zhashx_t *self, zhashx_serializer_fn serializer);
#endif // CZMQ_BUILD_DRAFT_API Please add '@interface' section in './../src/zhashx.c'.

zhashx is an extended hash table container with more functionality than zhash, its simpler cousin.
The hash table always has a size that is prime and roughly doubles its size when 75% full. In case of hash collisions items are chained in a linked list. The hash table size is increased slightly (up to 5 times before roughly doubling the size) when an overly long chain (between 1 and 63 items depending on table size) is detected.

From zhashx_test method.
zhashx_t *hash = zhashx_new ();
assert (hash);
assert (zhashx_size (hash) == 0);
assert (zhashx_first (hash) == NULL);
assert (zhashx_cursor (hash) == NULL);
// Insert some items int rc; rc = zhashx_insert (hash, "DEADBEEF", "dead beef"); char *item = (char *) zhashx_first (hash); assert (streq ((char *) zhashx_cursor (hash), "DEADBEEF")); assert (streq (item, "dead beef")); assert (rc == 0); rc = zhashx_insert (hash, "ABADCAFE", "a bad cafe"); assert (rc == 0); rc = zhashx_insert (hash, "C0DEDBAD", "coded bad"); assert (rc == 0); rc = zhashx_insert (hash, "DEADF00D", "dead food"); assert (rc == 0); assert (zhashx_size (hash) == 4);
// Look for existing items item = (char *) zhashx_lookup (hash, "DEADBEEF"); assert (streq (item, "dead beef")); item = (char *) zhashx_lookup (hash, "ABADCAFE"); assert (streq (item, "a bad cafe")); item = (char *) zhashx_lookup (hash, "C0DEDBAD"); assert (streq (item, "coded bad")); item = (char *) zhashx_lookup (hash, "DEADF00D"); assert (streq (item, "dead food"));
// Look for non-existent items item = (char *) zhashx_lookup (hash, "foo"); assert (item == NULL);
// Try to insert duplicate items rc = zhashx_insert (hash, "DEADBEEF", "foo"); assert (rc == -1); item = (char *) zhashx_lookup (hash, "DEADBEEF"); assert (streq (item, "dead beef"));
// Some rename tests
// Valid rename, key is now LIVEBEEF rc = zhashx_rename (hash, "DEADBEEF", "LIVEBEEF"); assert (rc == 0); item = (char *) zhashx_lookup (hash, "LIVEBEEF"); assert (streq (item, "dead beef"));
// Trying to rename an unknown item to a non-existent key rc = zhashx_rename (hash, "WHATBEEF", "NONESUCH"); assert (rc == -1);
// Trying to rename an unknown item to an existing key rc = zhashx_rename (hash, "WHATBEEF", "LIVEBEEF"); assert (rc == -1); item = (char *) zhashx_lookup (hash, "LIVEBEEF"); assert (streq (item, "dead beef"));
// Trying to rename an existing item to another existing item rc = zhashx_rename (hash, "LIVEBEEF", "ABADCAFE"); assert (rc == -1); item = (char *) zhashx_lookup (hash, "LIVEBEEF"); assert (streq (item, "dead beef")); item = (char *) zhashx_lookup (hash, "ABADCAFE"); assert (streq (item, "a bad cafe"));
// Test keys method zlistx_t *keys = zhashx_keys (hash); assert (zlistx_size (keys) == 4); zlistx_destroy (&keys);
zlistx_t *values = zhashx_values(hash); assert (zlistx_size (values) == 4); zlistx_destroy (&values);
// Test dup method zhashx_t *copy = zhashx_dup (hash); assert (zhashx_size (copy) == 4); item = (char *) zhashx_lookup (copy, "LIVEBEEF"); assert (item); assert (streq (item, "dead beef")); zhashx_destroy (&copy);
// Test pack/unpack methods zframe_t *frame = zhashx_pack (hash); copy = zhashx_unpack (frame); zframe_destroy (&frame); assert (zhashx_size (copy) == 4); item = (char *) zhashx_lookup (copy, "LIVEBEEF"); assert (item); assert (streq (item, "dead beef")); zhashx_destroy (&copy);
#ifdef CZMQ_BUILD_DRAFT_API // Test own pack/unpack methods zhashx_t *own_hash = zhashx_new (); zhashx_set_destructor (own_hash, s_test_destroy_int); assert (own_hash); int *val1 = (int *) zmalloc (sizeof (int)); int *val2 = (int *) zmalloc (sizeof (int)); *val1 = 25; *val2 = 100; zhashx_insert (own_hash, "val1", val1); zhashx_insert (own_hash, "val2", val2); frame = zhashx_pack_own (own_hash, s_test_serialize_int); copy = zhashx_unpack_own (frame, s_test_deserialze_int); zhashx_set_destructor (copy, s_test_destroy_int); zframe_destroy (&frame); assert (zhashx_size (copy) == 2); assert (*((int *) zhashx_lookup (copy, "val1")) == 25); assert (*((int *) zhashx_lookup (copy, "val2")) == 100); zhashx_destroy (&copy); zhashx_destroy (&own_hash); #endif // CZMQ_BUILD_DRAFT_API
// Test save and load zhashx_comment (hash, "This is a test file"); zhashx_comment (hash, "Created by %s", "czmq_selftest"); zhashx_save (hash, ".cache"); copy = zhashx_new (); assert (copy); zhashx_load (copy, ".cache"); item = (char *) zhashx_lookup (copy, "LIVEBEEF"); assert (item); assert (streq (item, "dead beef")); zhashx_destroy (&copy); zsys_file_delete (".cache");
// Delete a item zhashx_delete (hash, "LIVEBEEF"); item = (char *) zhashx_lookup (hash, "LIVEBEEF"); assert (item == NULL); assert (zhashx_size (hash) == 3);
// Check that the queue is robust against random usage struct { char name [100]; bool exists; } testset [200]; memset (testset, 0, sizeof (testset)); int testmax = 200, testnbr, iteration;
srandom ((unsigned) time (NULL)); for (iteration = 0; iteration < 25000; iteration++) { testnbr = randof (testmax); assert (testnbr != testmax); assert (testnbr < testmax); if (testset [testnbr].exists) { item = (char *) zhashx_lookup (hash, testset [testnbr].name); assert (item); zhashx_delete (hash, testset [testnbr].name); testset [testnbr].exists = false; } else { sprintf (testset [testnbr].name, "%x-%x", rand (), rand ()); if (zhashx_insert (hash, testset [testnbr].name, "") == 0) testset [testnbr].exists = true; } } // Test 10K lookups for (iteration = 0; iteration < 10000; iteration++) item = (char *) zhashx_lookup (hash, "DEADBEEFABADCAFE");
// Destructor should be safe to call twice zhashx_destroy (&hash); zhashx_destroy (&hash); assert (hash == NULL);
// Test randof() limits - should be within (0..testmax) // and randomness distribution - should not have (many) zero-counts // If there are - maybe the ZSYS_RANDOF_MAX is too big for this platform // Note: This test can take a while on systems with weak floating point HW testmax = 999; size_t rndcnt[999]; assert ((sizeof (rndcnt)/sizeof(rndcnt[0])) == testmax); memset (rndcnt, 0, sizeof (rndcnt)); for (iteration = 0; iteration < 10000000; iteration++) { testnbr = randof (testmax); assert (testnbr != testmax); assert (testnbr < testmax); assert (testnbr >= 0); rndcnt[testnbr]++; } int rndmisses = 0; for (iteration = 0; iteration < testmax; iteration++) { if (rndcnt[iteration] == 0) { zsys_warning("zhashx_test() : random distribution fault : got 0 hits for %d/%d", iteration, testmax); rndmisses++; } } // Too many misses are suspicious... we can lose half the entries // for each bit not used in the assumed ZSYS_RANDOF_MAX... assert ( (rndmisses < (testmax / 3 )) );
// Test destructor; automatically copies and frees string values hash = zhashx_new (); assert (hash); zhashx_set_destructor (hash, (zhashx_destructor_fn *) zstr_free); zhashx_set_duplicator (hash, (zhashx_duplicator_fn *) strdup); char value [255]; strcpy (value, "This is a string"); rc = zhashx_insert (hash, "key1", value); assert (rc == 0); strcpy (value, "Ring a ding ding"); rc = zhashx_insert (hash, "key2", value); assert (rc == 0); assert (streq ((char *) zhashx_lookup (hash, "key1"), "This is a string")); assert (streq ((char *) zhashx_lookup (hash, "key2"), "Ring a ding ding")); zhashx_destroy (&hash);
// Test purger and shrinker: no data should end up unreferenced in valgrind hash = zhashx_new (); assert (hash); zhashx_set_destructor (hash, (zhashx_destructor_fn *) zstr_free); zhashx_set_duplicator (hash, (zhashx_duplicator_fn *) strdup); char valuep [255]; strcpy (valuep, "This is a string"); rc = zhashx_insert (hash, "key1", valuep); assert (rc == 0); strcpy (valuep, "Ring a ding ding"); rc = zhashx_insert (hash, "key2", valuep); assert (rc == 0); strcpy (valuep, "Cartahena delenda est"); rc = zhashx_insert (hash, "key3", valuep); assert (rc == 0); strcpy (valuep, "So say we all!"); rc = zhashx_insert (hash, "key4", valuep); assert (rc == 0); assert (streq ((char *) zhashx_lookup (hash, "key1"), "This is a string")); assert (streq ((char *) zhashx_lookup (hash, "key2"), "Ring a ding ding")); assert (streq ((char *) zhashx_lookup (hash, "key3"), "Cartahena delenda est")); assert (streq ((char *) zhashx_lookup (hash, "key4"), "So say we all!")); zhashx_purge (hash); zhashx_destroy (&hash);
#if defined (__WINDOWS__) zsys_shutdown(); #endif

The czmq manual was written by the authors in the AUTHORS file.

Main web site:
Report bugs to the email < zeromq-dev@lists.zeromq.org[1]>

Copyright (c) the Contributors as noted in the AUTHORS file. This file is part of CZMQ, the high-level C binding for 0MQ: http://czmq.zeromq.org. This Source Code Form is subject to the terms of the Mozilla Public License, v. 2.0. If a copy of the MPL was not distributed with this file, You can obtain one at http://mozilla.org/MPL/2.0/. LICENSE included with the czmq distribution.

1.
zeromq-dev@lists.zeromq.org
mailto:zeromq-dev@lists.zeromq.org
01/02/2019 CZMQ 4.1.1

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