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BUILD(7) FreeBSD Miscellaneous Information Manual BUILD(7)

build
information on how to build the system

The sources for the FreeBSD system and its applications are contained in three different directories, normally /usr/src, /usr/doc, and /usr/ports. These directories may be initially empty or non-existent until updated with svn(1) or svnlite(1) or portsnap(8). Directory /usr/src contains the “base system” sources, which is loosely defined as the things required to rebuild the system to a useful state. Directory /usr/doc contains the source for the system documentation, excluding the manual pages. Directory /usr/ports contains a tree that provides a consistent interface for building and installing third party applications. For more information about the ports build process, see ports(7).
The make(1) command is used in each of these directories to build and install the things in that directory. Issuing the make(1) command in any directory or subdirectory of those directories has the same effect as issuing the same command in all subdirectories of that directory. With no target specified, the things in that directory are just built.
A source tree is allowed to be read-only. As described in make(1), objects are usually built in a separate object directory hierarchy specified by the environment variable MAKEOBJDIRPREFIX, or under /usr/obj if variable MAKEOBJDIRPREFIX is not set. The canonical object directory is described in the documentation for the buildworld target below.
The build may be controlled by defining make(1) variables described in the ENVIRONMENT section below, and by the variables documented in make.conf(5).
The following list provides the names and actions for the targets supported by the build system:
Run Clang static analyzer against all objects and present output on stdout.
Run tests for a given subdirectory. The default directory used is ${.OBJDIR}, but the check directory can be changed with ${CHECKDIR}.
Run the FreeBSD test suite on installed world.
Remove any files created during the build process.
Remove the ${.OBJDIR}/${DEPENDFILE}* files generated by prior “make” and “make depend” steps.
Remove the canonical object directory if it exists, or perform actions equivalent to “make clean cleandepend” if it does not. This target will also remove an obj link in ${.CURDIR} if that exists.
It is advisable to run “make cleandir” twice: the first invocation will remove the canonical object directory and the second one will clean up ${.CURDIR}.
Generate a list of build dependencies in file ${.OBJDIR}/${DEPENDFILE}. Per-object dependencies are generated at build time and stored in ${.OBJDIR}/${DEPENDFILE}.${OBJ}.
Install the results of the build to the appropriate location in the installation directory hierarchy specified in variable DESTDIR.
Create the canonical object directory associated with the current directory.
Create a symbolic link to the canonical object directory in ${.CURDIR}.
Generate a tags file using the program specified in the make(1) variable CTAGS. The build system supports ctags(1) and GNU Global.
The other supported targets under directory /usr/src are:
Spawn an interactive shell with environment variables set up for cross-building the system. The target architecture needs to be specified with make(1) variables TARGET_ARCH and TARGET.
This target is only useful after a complete cross-toolchain including the compiler, linker, assembler, headers and libraries has been built; see the toolchain target below.
Build everything but the kernel, configure files in etc, and release. The object directory can be changed from the default /usr/obj by setting the MAKEOBJDIRPREFIX make(1) variable. The actual build location prefix used depends on the WITH_UNIFIED_OBJDIR option from src.conf(5). If enabled it is ${MAKEOBJDIRPREFIX}${.CURDIR}/${TARGET}.${TARGET_ARCH} for all builds. If disabled it is ${MAKEOBJDIRPREFIX}${.CURDIR} for native builds, and ${MAKEOBJDIRPREFIX}/${TARGET}.${TARGET_ARCH}${.CURDIR} for cross builds and native builds with variable CROSS_BUILD_TESTING set.
Attempt to clean up targets built by a preceding buildworld, or similar step built from this source directory.
When WITH_UNIFIED_OBJDIR is enabled, attempt to clean up targets built by a preceding buildworld, universe, or similar step, for any architecture built from this source directory.
Distribute everything compiled by a preceding buildworld step. Files are placed in the directory hierarchy specified by make(1) variable DISTDIR. This target is used while building a release; see release(7).
This target builds a cross-toolchain for the given TARGET and TARGET_ARCH, as well as a select list of static userland tools for the host system. This is intended to be used in a jail where QEMU is used to improve performance by avoiding emulating binaries that do not need to be emulated. TARGET and TARGET_ARCH should be defined.
Installs the results to ${DESTDIR}/${NXTP} where NXTP defaults to nxb-bin. TARGET and TARGET_ARCH must be defined.
Archive the results of distributeworld, placing the results in DISTDIR. This target is used while building a release; see release(7).
Install everything built by a preceding buildworld step into the directory hierarchy pointed to by make(1) variable DESTDIR.
If installing onto an NFS file system and running make(1) with the -j option, make sure that rpc.lockd(8) is running on both client and server. See rc.conf(5) on how to make it start at boot time.
Create the build toolchain needed to build the rest of the system. For cross-architecture builds, this step creates a cross-toolchain.
For each architecture, execute a buildworld followed by a buildkernel for all kernels for that architecture, including LINT. This command takes a long time.
Get updated sources as configured in make.conf(5).
Print a list of supported TARGET / TARGET_ARCH pairs for world and kernel targets.
Execute the same targets as universe. In addition print a summary of all failed targets at the end and exit with an error if there were any.
Create a build toolchain for each architecture supported by the build system.
Builds and installs a cross-toolchain and sysroot for the given TARGET and TARGET_ARCH. The sysroot contains target library and headers. The target is an alias for xdev-build and xdev-install. The location of the files installed can be controlled with DESTDIR. The target location in DESTDIR is ${DESTDIR}/${XDTP} where XDTP defaults to /usr/${XDDIR} and XDDIR defaults to ${TARGET_ARCH}-freebsd.
Builds for the xdev target.
Installs the files for the xdev target.
Installs autoconf-style symlinks to ${DESTDIR}/usr/bin pointing into the xdev toolchain in ${DESTDIR}/${XDTP}.
Kernel specific build targets in /usr/src are:
Rebuild the kernel and the kernel modules. The object directory can be changed from the default /usr/obj by setting the MAKEOBJDIRPREFIX make(1) variable.
Install the kernel and the kernel modules to directory ${DESTDIR}/boot/kernel, renaming any pre-existing directory with this name to kernel.old if it contained the currently running kernel. The target directory under ${DESTDIR} may be modified using the INSTKERNNAME and KODIR make(1) variables.
Install the kernel to the directory ${DISTDIR}/kernel/boot/kernel. This target is used while building a release; see release(7).
Archive the results of distributekernel, placing the results in DISTDIR. This target is used while building a release; see release(7).
Equivalent to buildkernel followed by installkernel
Rebuild the tools needed for kernel compilation. Use this if you did not do a buildworld first.
Reinstall the kernel and the kernel modules, overwriting the contents of the target directory. As with the installkernel target, the target directory can be specified using the make(1) variable INSTKERNNAME.
Convenience targets for cleaning up the install destination directory denoted by variable DESTDIR include:
Print a list of old files and directories in the system.
Delete obsolete base system files and directories interactively. When -DBATCH_DELETE_OLD_FILES is specified at the command line, the delete operation will be non-interactive. The variables DESTDIR, TARGET_ARCH and TARGET should be set as with “make installworld”.
Delete obsolete base system libraries interactively. This target should only be used if no third party software uses these libraries. When -DBATCH_DELETE_OLD_FILES is specified at the command line, the delete operation will be non-interactive. The variables DESTDIR, TARGET_ARCH and TARGET should be set as with “make installworld”.

Variables that influence all builds include:
DEBUG_FLAGS
Defines a set of debugging flags that will be used to build all userland binaries under /usr/src. When DEBUG_FLAGS is defined, the install and installworld targets install binaries from the current MAKEOBJDIRPREFIX without stripping, so that debugging information is retained in the installed binaries.
DESTDIR
The directory hierarchy prefix where built objects will be installed. If not set, DESTDIR defaults to the empty string.
MAKEOBJDIRPREFIX
Defines the prefix for directory names in the tree of built objects. Defaults to /usr/obj if not defined. This variable should only be set in the environment or /etc/src-env.conf and not via /etc/make.conf or /etc/src.conf or the command line.
NO_WERROR
If defined, compiler warnings will not cause the build to halt, even if the makefile says otherwise.
WITH_CTF
If defined, the build process will run the DTrace CTF conversion tools on built objects.
Additionally, builds in /usr/src are influenced by the following make(1) variables:
KERNCONF
Overrides which kernel to build and install for the various kernel make targets. It defaults to GENERIC.
KERNCONFDIR
Overrides the directory in which KERNCONF and any files included by KERNCONF should be found. Defaults to sys/${ARCH}/conf.
KERNFAST
If set, the build target buildkernel defaults to setting NO_KERNELCLEAN, NO_KERNELCONFIG, and NO_KERNELOBJ. When set to a value other than 1 then KERNCONF is set to the value of KERNFAST.
LOCAL_DIRS
If set, this variable supplies a list of additional directories relative to the root of the source tree to build as part of the everything target. The directories are built in parallel with each other, and with the base system directories. Insert a .WAIT directive at the beginning of the LOCAL_DIRS list to ensure all base system directories are built first. .WAIT may also be used as needed elsewhere within the list.
LOCAL_ITOOLS
If set, this variable supplies a list of additional tools that are used by the installworld and distributeworld targets.
LOCAL_LIB_DIRS
If set, this variable supplies a list of additional directories relative to the root of the source tree to build as part of the libraries target. The directories are built in parallel with each other, and with the base system libraries. Insert a .WAIT directive at the beginning of the LOCAL_DIRS list to ensure all base system libraries are built first. .WAIT may also be used as needed elsewhere within the list.
LOCAL_MTREE
If set, this variable supplies a list of additional mtrees relative to the root of the source tree to use as part of the hierarchy target.
LOCAL_TOOL_DIRS
If set, this variable supplies a list of additional directories relative to the root of the source tree to build as part of the build-tools target.
LOCAL_XTOOL_DIRS
If set, this variable supplies a list of additional directories relative to the root of the source tree to build as part of the cross-tools target.
PORTS_MODULES
A list of ports with kernel modules that should be built and installed as part of the buildkernel and installkernel process.
make PORTS_MODULES=emulators/kqemu-kmod kernel
    
STRIPBIN
Command to use at install time when stripping binaries. Be sure to add any additional tools required to run STRIPBIN to the LOCAL_ITOOLS make(1) variable before running the distributeworld or installworld targets. See install(1) for more details.
SUBDIR_OVERRIDE
Override the default list of sub-directories and only build the sub-directory named in this variable. If combined with buildworld then all libraries and includes, and some of the build tools will still build as well. Specifying -DNO_LIBS, and -DWORLDFAST will only build the specified directory as was done historically. When combined with buildworld it is necesarry to override LOCAL_LIB_DIRS with any custom directories containing libraries. This allows building a subset of the system in the same way as buildworld does using its sysroot handling. This variable can also be useful when debugging failed builds.
make some-target SUBDIR_OVERRIDE=foo/bar
    
TARGET
The target hardware platform. This is analogous to the “uname -m” output. This is necessary to cross-build some target architectures. For example, cross-building for ARM64 machines requires TARGET_ARCH=aarch64 and TARGET=arm64. If not set, TARGET defaults to the current hardware platform, unless TARGET_ARCH is also set, in which case it defaults to the appropriate value for that architecture.
TARGET_ARCH
The target machine processor architecture. This is analogous to the “uname -p” output. Set this to cross-build for a different architecture. If not set, TARGET_ARCH defaults to the current machine architecture, unless TARGET is also set, in which case it defaults to the appropriate value for that platform. Typically, one only needs to set TARGET.
Builds under directory /usr/src are also influenced by defining one or more of the following symbols, using the -D option of make(1):
LOADER_DEFAULT_INTERP
Defines what interpreter the default loader program will have. Valid values include “4th”, “lua”, and “simp”. This creates the default link for /boot/loader to the loader with that interpreter. It also determines what interpreter is compiled into userboot.
NO_CLEANDIR
If set, the build targets that clean parts of the object tree use the equivalent of “make clean” instead of “make cleandir”.
NO_CLEAN
If set, no object tree files are cleaned at all. This is the default when WITH_META_MODE is used with filemon(4) loaded. See src.conf(5) for more details. Setting NO_CLEAN implies NO_KERNELCLEAN, so when NO_CLEAN is set no kernel objects are cleaned either.
NO_CTF
If set, the build process does not run the DTrace CTF conversion tools on built objects.
NO_SHARE
If set, the build does not descend into the /usr/src/share subdirectory (i.e., manual pages, locale data files, timezone data files and other /usr/src/share files will not be rebuild from their sources).
NO_KERNELCLEAN
If set, the build process does not run “make clean” as part of the buildkernel target.
NO_KERNELCONFIG
If set, the build process does not run config(8) as part of the buildkernel target.
NO_KERNELOBJ
If set, the build process does not run “make obj” as part of the buildkernel target.
NO_DOCUPDATE
If set, the update process does not update the source of the FreeBSD documentation as part of the “make update” target.
NO_LIBS
If set, the libraries phase will be skipped.
NO_OBJWALK
If set, no object directories will be created. This should only be used if object directories were created in a previous build and no new directories are connected.
NO_PORTSUPDATE
If set, the update process does not update the Ports tree as part of the “make update” target.
NO_WWWUPDATE
If set, the update process does not update the www tree as part of the “make update” target.
WORLDFAST
If set, the build target buildworld defaults to setting NO_CLEAN, NO_OBJWALK, and will skip most bootstrap phases. It will only bootstrap libraries and build all of userland. This option should be used only when it is known that none of the bootstrap needs changed and that no new directories have been connected to the build.
Builds under directory /usr/doc are influenced by the following make(1) variables:
DOC_LANG
If set, restricts the documentation build to the language subdirectories specified as its content. The default action is to build documentation for all languages.
Builds using the universe target are influenced by the following make(1) variables:
JFLAG
Pass the value of this variable to each make(1) invocation used to build worlds and kernels. This can be used to enable multiple jobs within a single architecture's build while still building each architecture serially.
MAKE_JUST_KERNELS
Only build kernels for each supported architecture.
MAKE_JUST_WORLDS
Only build worlds for each supported architecture.
UNIVERSE_TARGET
Execute the specified make(1) target for each supported architecture instead of the default action of building a world and one or more kernels.

/usr/doc/Makefile
 
/usr/doc/share/mk/doc.project.mk
 
/usr/ports/Mk/bsd.port.mk
 
/usr/ports/Mk/bsd.sites.mk
 
/usr/share/examples/etc/make.conf
 
/usr/src/Makefile
 
/usr/src/Makefile.inc1
 

For an “approved” method of updating your system from the latest sources, please see the COMMON ITEMS section in src/UPDATING.
The following sequence of commands can be used to cross-build the system for the armv6 architecture on an amd64 host:
cd /usr/src 
make TARGET_ARCH=armv6 buildworld buildkernel 
make TARGET_ARCH=armv6 DESTDIR=/clients/arm64 installworld installkernel

cc(1), install(1), make(1), svn(1), svnlite(1), make.conf(5), src.conf(5), arch(7), ports(7), release(7), tests(7), config(8), mergemaster(8), portsnap(8), reboot(8), shutdown(8)

Mike W. Meyer <mwm@mired.org>
August 16, 2018 FreeBSD 12.0-RELEASE

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