GNUstep - A free implementation of the OpenStep standard
provides an Object-Oriented application development framework and
toolset for use on a wide variety of computer platforms. GNUstep
based on the original OpenStep specification provided by NeXT, Inc. (now Apple
and called Cocoa).
is written in Objective-C, an object-oriented superset of the C
programming language, similar to SmallTalk. However there exist a number of
bridges and interfaces to develop GNUstep
programs using other
languages like JAVA or Ruby.
core system consists of the following parts, which are
jointly referred to as gnustep-core
- A set of scripts and makefiles that heavily ease the creation and
maintenance of software projects.
- The FoundationKit libraries for non-GUI tools providing everything from
string and array classes, filemanager classes to distributed objects.
- The ApplicationKit containing widgets, workspace classes and means for
applications to interact with the user. This is the frontend of
GNUstep's GUI part.
- This is the backend of GNUstep's GUI part which does the actual
rendering and event handling. It acts as a layer between gnustep-gui and
the operating/drawing system. Backends exist for X11 (one using cairo, one
using libart, one using xlib drawing) and win32.
Apart from the above, there exist a number of addon libraries related to
GNUstep, like Renaissance
which allows developers to specify an
application's user interface in xml. For database access, there is GDL2
- the GNUstep Database Library. Please refer to the GNUstep
per default is self-contained. That means that all GNUstep
applications, tools, libraries and add-ons are installed into the
directory hierarchy. However as of gnustep-make-2.0.0
is also possible to install everything in compliance with other filesystem
hierarchies. See the FilesystemLayouts
directory in the source package
for more information.
There are four domains which are searched for files: the System domain, which
should only contain the core system files, the Local domain which stores all
that has later been installed on the system, the Network domain which should
be used for importing data from a remote system, and the User domain which
resides in the user's home directory (mostly ~/GNUstep
A complete description of the default GNUstep
layout can be found in the
In the world of GNUstep the term tool
refers to command line programs
are fully fledged GUI programs. Naturally,
reside in the domains' Tools folder, applications
found in the domains' Applications folder.
Applications are either launched using the openapp
command or from the
applications globally offer functionality to other
applications through services
. They can be reached through the Services
menu entry in an application's main menu. Apart from services
by applications, there may be programs whose sole purpose is the offering of
services. They can be found in the domains' Libary/Services folders.
tool makes sure the services are known to other
applications when a application is newly installed.
A bundle is a collection of resources making up a discrete package for use.
There are currently three types of bundles: applications, frameworks and
A loadable bundle is a kind of plug-in. There are two types of loadable bundles,
namely plug-ins and palettes. The plug-in is noramlly referred to as a bundle,
which can make it a bit confusing. A plug-in is a bundle that can be loaded by
an application to provide additional functionality, while a palette is a
plug-in for GORM
, the interface builder. A palette is used to extend
with custom UI objects. Palettes have a .palette
The central place of the user interface is the Workspace
which acts as an interface between the user and parts of the
system like files, processes, etc. The GWorkspace application provides this
functionality in GNUstep. See the GWorkspace website for more details.
What would a development environment be without the applications to create
applications? The applications provided by GNUstep for Rapid Application
- GORM is the interface modeler. With GORM you can quickly
create the graphical interface of your application.
- Project Center
- Project Center is the program where you can develop your program.
It offers you automatic generation of GNUmakefiles , project
maintenance and of course a code editor.
gcc(1), gdnc(1), gdomap(8), gopen(1), gpbs(1), make(1), openapp(1)
- Official GNUstep website
- GNUstep Wiki (lots of useful information)
- GNUstep Project Page
- GNUstep Documentation Library
- Collaboration World, the home of GNUmail
- The home of GWorkspace, JIGS, Renaissance and programming tutorials.
- Mailing lists and mailing list archives.
- #GNUstep on FreeNode
- You are invited to join the #GNUstep IRC channel on FreeNode
was at first a collaboration of two projects that wanted to
create a single GNUstep
project that complied to the OpenStep
specification provided by NeXT Computer, Inc. and SunSoft, Inc. Development of
this joint effort started around 1993-1994. For a more detailed history
description see the GNUstep Documentation Library referenced in the SEE
GNUstep is developed and maintained by a large number of people. Please see
<http://www.gnustep.org/developers/whoiswho.html> for a list.
This man-page was first written by Martin Brecher
<email@example.com> in august of 2003.
In December 2007 it was expanded by Dennis Leeuw <firstname.lastname@example.org> and
made to comply with the gnustep-make-2.0.x releases.