GSP
Quick Navigator

Search Site

Unix VPS
A - Starter
B - Basic
C - Preferred
D - Commercial
MPS - Dedicated
Previous VPSs
* Sign Up! *

Support
Contact Us
Online Help
Handbooks
Domain Status
Man Pages

FAQ
Virtual Servers
Pricing
Billing
Technical

Network
Facilities
Connectivity
Topology Map

Miscellaneous
Server Agreement
Year 2038
Credits
 

USA Flag

 

 

Man Pages
HIER(7) FreeBSD Miscellaneous Information Manual HIER(7)

hier
layout of file systems

A sketch of the file system hierarchy.
/
root directory of the file system
/bin/
user utilities fundamental to both single-user and multi-user environments
/boot/
programs and configuration files used during operating system bootstrap
defaults/
default bootstrapping configuration files; see loader.conf(5)
dtb/
Compiled flattened device tree (FDT) files; see fdt(4) and dtc(1)
firmware/
loadable kernel modules containing binary firmware for hardware that needs firmware downloaded to it to function
kernel/
pure kernel executable (the operating system loaded into memory at boot time) and kernel modules
modules/
third-party loadable kernel modules; see kldstat(8)
overlays/
Compiled flattened device tree (FDT) overlays; see fdt(4) and dtc(1)
zfs/
zfs(8) zpool cache files
/cdrom/
default mount point for CD-ROM drives
/compat/
normally a link to /usr/compat. If not, then the /usr/compat comments apply
/dev/
device special files managed by devfs(5)
fd/
file descriptor files; see fd(4)
/etc/
system configuration files and scripts
defaults/
default system configuration files; see rc(8)
bluetooth/
bluetooth configuration files
localtime
local timezone information; see ctime(3)
mail/
Sendmail control files
mtree/
mtree configuration files; see mtree(8)
pam.d/
configuration files for the Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM) library
periodic/
scripts that are run daily, weekly, and monthly, via cron(8); see periodic(8)
rc.d/
system and daemon startup/control scripts; see rc(8)
security/
OpenBSM audit configuration files; see audit(8)
ppp/
ppp configuration files; see ppp(8)
ssh/
OpenSSH configuration files; see ssh(1)
ssl/
OpenSSL configuration files
/lib/
critical system libraries needed for binaries in /bin and /sbin
geom/
class-specific libraries for the geom(8) utility
/libexec/
critical system utilities needed for binaries in /bin and /sbin
/media/
contains subdirectories to be used as mount points for removable media such as CDs, USB drives, and floppy disks
/mnt/
empty directory commonly used by system administrators as a temporary mount point
/net/
automounted NFS shares; see auto_master(5)
/proc/
process file system; see procfs(5)
/rescue/
statically linked programs for emergency recovery; see rescue(8)
/root/
root's HOME directory
/sbin/
system programs and administration utilities fundamental to both single-user and multi-user environments
/tmp/
temporary files that are not guaranteed to persist across system reboots
/usr/
contains the majority of user utilities and applications
bin/
common utilities, programming tools, and applications
compat/
files needed to support binary compatibility with other operating systems, such as Linux
include/
standard C include files
arpa/
C include files for Internet service protocols
bsnmp/
C include files for the SNMP daemon
c++/
C++ include files
cam/
C include files for the Common Access Methods Layer
scsi/
SCSI device on top of CAM
dev/
C include files for programming various FreeBSD devices
ic/
various header files describing driver- and bus-independent hardware circuits
ofw/
Open Firmware support
pbio/
8255 PPI cards; see pbio(4)
ppbus/
parallel port bus; see ppbus(4)
usb/
USB subsystem
wi/
wi(4) WaveLAN driver
fs/
fdescfs/
per-process file descriptors file system
msdosfs/
MS-DOS file system
nfs/
C include files for NFS (Network File System) version 2, 3 and 4
nullfs/
loopback file system
procfs/
process file system
smbfs/
SMB/CIFS file system
udf/
UDF file system
unionfs
union file system
geom/
GEOM framework
concat/
CONCAT GEOM class
gate/
GATE GEOM class
mirror/
MIRROR GEOM class
nop/
NOP GEOM class
raid3/
RAID3 GEOM class
stripe/
STRIPE GEOM class
libmilter/
C include files for libmilter, the sendmail(8) mail filter API
machine/
machine-specific C include files
net/
miscellaneous network C include files
altq/
C include files for alternate queueing
net80211/
C include files for 802.11 wireless networking; see net80211(4)
netinet/
C include files for Internet standard protocols; see inet(4)
netinet6/
C include files for Internet protocol version 6; see inet6(4)
netipsec/
kernel key-management service; see ipsec(4)
netsmb/
SMB/CIFS requester
nfs/
C include files for NFS (Network File System) version 2 and 3 (legacy)
openssl/
OpenSSL (Cryptography/SSL toolkit) headers
protocols/
C include files for Berkeley service protocols
rpc/
remote procedure calls; see rpc(3)
rpcsvc/
definition of RPC service structures; see rpc(3)
security/
PAM; see pam(8)
sys/
system C include files (kernel data structures)
ufs/
C include files for UFS (The U-word File System)
ffs/
Fast file system
ufs/
UFS file system
vm/
virtual memory; see vmstat(8)
lib/
shared and archive ar(1)-type libraries
aout/
a.out archive libraries
compat/
shared libraries for compatibility
aout/
a.out backward compatibility libraries
debug/
standalone debug data for the kernel and base system libraries and binaries
dtrace/
DTrace library scripts
engines/
OpenSSL (Cryptography/SSL toolkit) dynamically loadable engines
libdata/
miscellaneous utility data files
gcc/
gcc(1) configuration data
ldscripts/
linker scripts; see ld(1)
libexec/
system daemons & system utilities (executed by other programs)
aout/
utilities to manipulate a.out executables
elf/
utilities to manipulate ELF executables
lpr/
utilities and filters for LP print system; see lpr(1)
sendmail/
the sendmail(8) binary; see mailwrapper(8)
sm.bin/
restricted shell for sendmail(8); see smrsh(8)
local/
local executables, libraries, etc. Also used as the default destination for the ports(7) framework. Within local/, the general layout sketched out by hier for /usr should be used. Exceptions are the man directory (directly under local/ rather than under local/share/), ports documentation (in share/doc/<port>/), and /usr/local/etc (mimics /etc).
obj/
architecture-specific target tree produced by building the /usr/src tree
ports/
ports(7), the FreeBSD ports collection.
sbin/
system daemons & system utilities (executed by users)
share/
architecture-independent files
calendar/
a variety of pre-fab calendar files; see calendar(1)
dict/
word lists; see look(1)
freebsd
FreeBSD-specific terms, proper names, and jargon
web2
words from Webster's 2nd International
doc/
miscellaneous documentation; source for most of the printed BSD manuals (available from the USENIX association)
FAQ/
Frequently Asked Questions
IPv6/
implementation notes for IPv6
es/
Spanish translations of documents in /usr/share/doc
handbook/
FreeBSD Handbook
ja/
Japanese translations of documents in /usr/share/doc
legal/
License files for vendor supplied firmware files
ncurses/
HTML documents pertaining to ncurses; see ncurses(3)
ntp/
HTML documents pertaining to the Network Time Protocol
ru/
Russian translations of documents in /usr/share/doc
tutorials/
FreeBSD tutorials
zh/
Chinese translations of documents in /usr/share/doc
examples/
various examples for users and programmers
firmware/
firmware images loaded by userland programs
games/
ASCII text files used by various games
keys/
known trusted and revoked keys.
pkg/
fingerprints for pkg(7) and pkg(8)
locale/
localization files; see setlocale(3)
man/
manual pages
misc/
miscellaneous system-wide ASCII text files
fonts/
???
termcap
terminal characteristics database; see termcap(5)
mk/
templates for make; see make(1)
nls/
national language support files; see mklocale(1)
security/
data files for security policies such as mac_lomac(4)
sendmail/
sendmail(8) configuration files
skel/
example . (dot) files for new accounts
snmp/
MIBs, example files and tree definitions for the SNMP daemon.
defs/
tree definition files for use with gensnmptree(1)
mibs/
MIB files
syscons/
files used by syscons; see syscons(4)
fonts/
console fonts; see vidcontrol(1) and vidfont(1)
keymaps/
console keyboard maps; see kbdcontrol(1) and kbdmap(1)
scrnmaps/
console screen maps
tabset/
tab description files for a variety of terminals; used in the termcap file; see termcap(5)
vi/
localization support and utilities for vi(1)
vt/
files used by vt; see vt(4)
fonts/
console fonts; see vidcontrol(1) and vidfont(1)
keymaps/
console keyboard maps; see kbdcontrol(1) and kbdmap(1)
zoneinfo/
timezone configuration information; see tzfile(5)
src/
BSD, third-party, and/or local source files
bin/
source code for files in /bin
cddl/
utilities covered by the Common Development and Distribution License
contrib/
source code for contributed software
crypto/
source code for contributed cryptography software
etc/
source code for files in /etc
gnu/
utilities covered by the GNU General Public License
include/
source code for files in /usr/include
kerberos5/
build infrastructure for Kerberos version 5
lib/
source code for files in /lib and /usr/lib
libexec/
source code for files in /usr/libexec
release/
files required to produce a FreeBSD release
rescue/
source code for files in /rescue
sbin/
source code for files in /sbin
secure/
build directory for files in /usr/src/crypto
share/
source for files in /usr/share
stand/
boot loader source code
sys/
kernel source code
amd64/
AMD64 architecture support
arm/
ARM architecture support
arm64/
ARMv8 architecture support
cam/
cam(4) and ctl(4)
cddl/
CDDL-licensed optional sources, including ZFS and DTrace
ddb/
ddb(4)
fs/
most filesystems
dev/
device drivers
geom/
geom(4)
i386/
i386 (32 bit) architecture support
kern/
main part of the kernel
mips/
MIPS architecture support
net80211/
net80211(4)
netgraph/
netgraph(4)
netinet/
inet(4)
netinet6/
inet6(4)
netipsec/
ipsec(4)
netpfil/
ipfw(4) and pf(4)
opencrypto/
crypto(7)
powerpc/
PowerPC/POWER architecture support
riscv/
RISC-V architecture support
security/
audit(4) and mac(4)
sparc64/
SPARC64 architecture support
sys/
kernel headers
ufs/
Unix File System
x86/
code shared by AMD64 and i386 architectures
targets/
support for experimental DIRDEPS_BUILD
tests/
source code for files in /usr/tests
tools/
tools used for maintenance and testing of FreeBSD
usr.bin/
source code for files in /usr/bin
usr.sbin/
source code for files in /usr/sbin
tests/
The FreeBSD test suite. See tests(7) for more details.
/var/
multi-purpose log, temporary, transient, and spool files
account/
system accounting files
acct
execution accounting file; see acct(5)
at/
timed command scheduling files; see at(1)
jobs/
directory containing job files
spool/
directory containing output spool files
backups/
miscellaneous backup files
cache/
miscellaneous cached files
pkg/
cached packages for pkg(8)
crash/
default directory to store kernel crash dumps; see crash(8) and savecore(8)
cron/
files used by cron; see cron(8)
tabs/
crontab files; see crontab(5)
db/
miscellaneous automatically generated system-specific database files
empty/
empty directory for use by programs that need a specifically empty directory. Used for instance by sshd(8) for privilege separation.
games/
miscellaneous game status and score files
heimdal/
Kerberos server databases; see kdc(8)
log/
miscellaneous system log files
utx.lastlogin
last login log; see getutxent(3)
utx.log
login/logout log; see getutxent(3)
mail/
user mailbox files
msgs/
system messages database; see msgs(1)
preserve/
temporary home of files preserved after an accidental death of an editor; see ex(1)
quotas/
file system quota information files
run/
system information files describing various info about system since it was booted
ppp/
writable by the “network” group for command connection sockets; see ppp(8)
utx.active
database of current users; see getutxent(3)
rwho/
rwho data files; see rwhod(8), rwho(1), and ruptime(1)
spool/
miscellaneous printer and mail system spooling directories
clientmqueue/
undelivered submission mail queue; see sendmail(8)
ftp/
commonly ~ftp; the anonymous ftp root directory
mqueue/
undelivered mail queue; see sendmail(8)
output/
line printer spooling directories
tmp/
temporary files that are kept between system reboots
vi.recover/
the directory where recovery files are stored
yp/
the NIS maps

This manual page documents the default FreeBSD file system layout, but the actual hierarchy on a given system is defined at the system administrator's discretion. A well-maintained installation will include a customized version of this document.

apropos(1), find(1), finger(1), grep(1), ls(1), whatis(1), whereis(1), which(1), fd(4), devfs(5), fsck(8)

A hier manual page appeared in Version 7 AT&T UNIX.
June 18, 2018 FreeBSD 12.0-RELEASE

Search for    or go to Top of page |  Section 7 |  Main Index

Powered by GSP Visit the GSP FreeBSD Man Page Interface.
Output converted with ManDoc.