monkeysphere-authentication - Monkeysphere authentication admin tool.
monkeysphere-authentication subcommand [args]
is a framework to leverage the OpenPGP Web of Trust (WoT)
for key-based authentication. OpenPGP keys are tracked via GnuPG, and added to
the authorized_keys files used by OpenSSH for connection authentication.
is a Monkeysphere server admin utility for
configuring and managing SSH user authentication through the WoT.
takes various subcommands:
- update-users [USER]...
- Rebuild the monkeysphere-controlled authorized_keys files. For each
specified account, the user ID's listed in the account's
authorized_user_ids file are processed. For each user ID, gpg will be
queried for keys associated with that user ID, optionally querying a
keyserver. If an acceptable key is found (see KEY ACCEPTABILITY in
monkeysphere(7)), the key is added to the account's
monkeysphere-controlled authorized_keys file. If the RAW_AUTHORIZED_KEYS
variable is set, then a separate authorized_keys file (usually
~USER/.ssh/authorized_keys) is appended to the monkeysphere-controlled
authorized_keys file. If no accounts are specified, then all accounts on
the system are processed. `u' may be used in place of `update-users'.
- keys-for-user USER
- Output to stdout authorized_keys lines for USER. This command behaves
exactly like update-users (above), except that the resulting
authorized_keys lines are output to stdout, instead of being written to
the monkeysphere-controlled authorized_keys file.
- Refresh all keys in the monkeysphere-authentication keyring. If no
accounts are specified, then all accounts on the system are processed. `r'
may be used in place of `refresh-keys'.
- add-id-certifier KEYID|FILE
- Instruct system to trust user identity certifications made by KEYID. The
key ID will be loaded from the keyserver. A file may be loaded instead of
pulling the key from the keyserver by specifying the path to the file as
the argument, or by specifying `-' to load from stdin. Using the `-n' or
`--domain' option allows you to indicate that you only trust the given
KEYID to make identifications within a specific domain (e.g. "trust
KEYID to certify user identities within the @example.org domain"). A
certifier trust level can be specified with the `-t' or `--trust' option
(possible values are `marginal' and `full' (default is `full')). A
certifier trust depth can be specified with the `-d' or `--depth' option
(default is 1). `c+' may be used in place of `add-id-certifier'.
- remove-id-certifier KEYID
- Instruct system to ignore user identity certifications made by KEYID. `c-'
may be used in place of `remove-id-certifier'.
- List key IDs trusted by the system to certify user identities. `c' may be
used in place of `list-id-certifiers'.
- Show the monkeysphere version number. `v' may be used in place of
- Output a brief usage summary. `h' or `?' may be used in place of `help'.
- Setup the server in preparation for Monkeysphere user authentication. This
command is idempotent and run automatically by the other commands, and
should therefore not usually need to be run manually. `s' may be used in
place of `setup'.
- Review the state of the server with respect to authentication. `d' may be
used in place of `diagnostics'.
- Execute a gpg command, as the monkeysphere user, on the monkeysphere
authentication `sphere' keyring. As of monkeysphere 0.36, this takes its
arguments separately, not as a single string. Use this command with
caution, as modifying the authentication sphere keyring can affect ssh
If the server will handle user authentication through monkeysphere-generated
authorized_keys files, the server must be told which keys will act as identity
certifiers. This is done with the add-id-certifier
# monkeysphere-authentication add-id-certifier KEYID
where KEYID is the key ID of the server admin, or whoever's certifications
should be acceptable to the system for the purposes of authenticating remote
users. You can run this command multiple times to indicate that multiple
certifiers are trusted. You may also specify a filename instead of a key ID,
as long as the file contains a single OpenPGP public key. Certifiers can be
removed with the remove-id-certifier
command, and listed with the
A remote user will be granted access to a local account based on the
appropriately-signed and valid keys associated with user IDs listed in that
account's authorized_user_ids file. By default, the authorized_user_ids file
for an account is ~/.monkeysphere/authorized_user_ids. This can be changed in
the monkeysphere-authentication.conf file.
command is used to generate authorized_keys files for a
local account based on the user IDs listed in the account's
# monkeysphere-authentication update-users USER
Not specifying USER will cause all accounts on the system to updated. The ssh
server can use these monkeysphere-generated authorized_keys files to grant
access to user accounts for remote users. In order for sshd to look at the
monkeysphere-generated authorized_keys file for user authentication, the
AuthorizedKeysFile parameter must be set in the sshd_config to point to the
monkeysphere-generated authorized_keys files:
It is recommended to add "monkeysphere-authentication update-users" to
a system crontab, so that user keys are kept up-to-date, and key revocations
and expirations can be processed in a timely manner.
The following environment variables will override those specified in the config
file (defaults in parentheses):
- User to control authentication keychain. (monkeysphere)
- Set the log level. Can be SILENT, ERROR, INFO, VERBOSE, DEBUG, in
increasing order of verbosity. (INFO)
- OpenPGP keyserver to use. (pool.sks-keyservers.net)
- Whether or not to check the keyserver when making gpg queries. (true)
- Path to user's authorized_user_ids file. %h gets replaced with the user's
homedir, %u with the username. (%h/.monkeysphere/authorized_user_ids)
- Path to regular ssh-style authorized_keys file to append to
monkeysphere-generated authorized_keys. `none' means not to add any raw
authorized_keys file. %h gets replaced with the user's homedir, %u with
the username. (%h/.ssh/authorized_keys)
- If set to `false', never prompt the user for confirmation. (true)
- If set to `false', ignore too-loose permissions on known_hosts,
authorized_keys, and authorized_user_ids files. NOTE: setting this to
false may expose users to abuse by other users on the system. (true)
- System monkeysphere-authentication config file.
- If monkeysphere-authentication is configured to query an hkps keyserver,
it will use the PEM-encoded X.509 Certificate Authority certificates in
this file to validate any X.509 certificates used by the keyserver. If the
monkeysphere-authentication-x509 file is present, the monkeysphere-x509
file will be ignored.
- Monkeysphere-controlled user authorized_keys files.
- A list of OpenPGP user IDs, one per line. OpenPGP keys with an
exactly-matching User ID (calculated valid by the designated identity
certifiers), will have any valid authorization-capable keys or subkeys
added to the given user's authorized_keys file. Any line with initial
whitespace will be interpreted as ssh authorized_keys options applicable
to the preceding User ID.
This man page was written by: Jameson Rollins
<firstname.lastname@example.org>, Daniel Kahn Gillmor
<email@example.com>, Matthew Goins <firstname.lastname@example.org>