||FreeBSD System Manager's Manual
sendmail - an electronic mail transport agent
sendmail [flags] [address ...]
Sendmail sends a message to one or more recipients, routing the
message over whatever networks are necessary. Sendmail does
internetwork forwarding as necessary to deliver the message to the correct
Sendmail is not intended as a user interface routine; other
programs provide user-friendly front ends; sendmail is used only to
deliver pre-formatted messages.
With no flags, sendmail reads its standard input up to an
end-of-file or a line consisting only of a single dot and sends a copy of
the message found there to all of the addresses listed. It determines the
network(s) to use based on the syntax and contents of the addresses.
Local addresses are looked up in a file and aliased appropriately.
Aliasing can be prevented by preceding the address with a backslash.
Beginning with 8.10, the sender is included in any alias expansions, e.g.,
if `john' sends to `group', and `group' includes `john' in the expansion,
then the letter will also be delivered to `john'.
There are also a number of processing options that may be set. Normally these
will only be used by a system administrator. Options may be set either on the
command line using the -o flag (for short names), the -O flag
(for long names), or in the configuration file. This is a partial list limited
to those options that are likely to be useful on the command line and only
shows the long names; for a complete list (and details), consult the
Sendmail Installation and Operation Guide. The options are:
- Use submit.cf even if the operation mode does not indicate an initial mail
- Use sendmail.cf even if the operation mode indicates an initial mail
- Set the body type to type. Current legal values are 7BIT or
- Go into ARPANET mode. All input lines must end with a CR-LF, and all
messages will be generated with a CR-LF at the end. Also, the ``From:''
and ``Sender:'' fields are examined for the name of the sender.
- Check the configuration file.
- Run as a daemon. Sendmail will fork and run in background listening
on socket 25 for incoming SMTP connections. This is normally run from
- Same as -bd except runs in foreground.
- Print the persistent host status database.
- Purge expired entries from the persistent host status database.
- Initialize the alias database.
- Deliver mail in the usual way (default).
- Print a listing of the queue(s).
- Print number of entries in the queue(s); only available with shared memory
- Use the SMTP protocol as described in RFC821 on standard input and output.
This flag implies all the operations of the -ba flag that are
compatible with SMTP.
- Run in address test mode. This mode reads addresses and shows the steps in
parsing; it is used for debugging configuration tables.
- Verify names only - do not try to collect or deliver a message. Verify
mode is normally used for validating users or mailing lists.
- Use alternate configuration file. Sendmail gives up any enhanced
(set-user-ID or set-group-ID) privileges if an alternate configuration
file is specified.
- -D logfile
- Send debugging output to the indicated log file instead of stdout.
- Set the debugging flag for category to level.
Category is either an integer or a name specifying the topic, and
level an integer specifying the level of debugging output desired.
Higher levels generally mean more output. More than one flag can be
specified by separating them with commas. A list of numeric debugging
categories can be found in the TRACEFLAGS file in the sendmail source
The option -d0.1 prints the version of sendmail and the
options it was compiled with.
Most other categories are only useful with, and documented in,
sendmail's source code.
- Set the full name of the sender.
- Sets the name of the ``from'' person (i.e., the envelope sender of the
mail). This address may also be used in the From: header if that header is
missing during initial submission. The envelope sender address is used as
the recipient for delivery status notifications and may also appear in a
Return-Path: header. -f should only be used by ``trusted'' users
(normally root, daemon, and network) or if the person
you are trying to become is the same as the person you are. Otherwise, an
X-Authentication-Warning header will be added to the message.
- Relay (gateway) submission of a message, e.g., when rmail calls
- Set the hop count to N. The hop count is incremented every time the
mail is processed. When it reaches a limit, the mail is returned with an
error message, the victim of an aliasing loop. If not specified,
``Received:'' lines in the message are counted.
- Do not strip a leading dot from lines in incoming messages, and do not
treat a dot on a line by itself as the end of an incoming message. This
should be set if you are reading data from a file.
- -L tag
- Set the identifier used in syslog messages to the supplied
- -N dsn
- Set delivery status notification conditions to dsn, which can be
`never' for no notifications or a comma separated list of the values
`failure' to be notified if delivery failed, `delay' to be notified if
delivery is delayed, and `success' to be notified when the message is
- Don't do aliasing.
- -O option=value
- Set option option to the specified value. This form uses
long names. See below for more details.
- -ox value
- Set option x to the specified value. This form uses single
character names only. The short names are not described in this manual
page; see the Sendmail Installation and Operation Guide for
- Set the name of the protocol used to receive the message. This can be a
simple protocol name such as ``UUCP'' or a protocol and hostname, such as
- Process saved messages in the queue at given intervals. If time is
omitted, process the queue once. Time is given as a tagged number,
with `s' being seconds, `m' being minutes (default), `h' being hours, `d'
being days, and `w' being weeks. For example, `-q1h30m' or `-q90m' would
both set the timeout to one hour thirty minutes. By default,
sendmail will run in the background. This option can be used safely
- Similar to -qtime, except that instead of periodically
forking a child to process the queue, sendmail forks a single persistent
child for each queue that alternates between processing the queue and
sleeping. The sleep time is given as the argument; it defaults to 1
second. The process will always sleep at least 5 seconds if the queue was
empty in the previous queue run.
- Process saved messages in the queue once and do not fork(), but run in the
- Process jobs in queue group called name only.
- Limit processed jobs to those containing substr as a substring of
the queue id or not when ! is specified.
- Limit processed jobs to quarantined jobs containing substr as a
substring of the quarantine reason or not when ! is specified.
- Limit processed jobs to those containing substr as a substring of
one of the recipients or not when ! is specified.
- Limit processed jobs to those containing substr as a substring of
the sender or not when ! is specified.
- Quarantine a normal queue items with the given reason or unquarantine
quarantined queue items if no reason is given. This should only be used
with some sort of item matching using as described above.
- -R return
- Set the amount of the message to be returned if the message bounces. The
return parameter can be `full' to return the entire message or
`hdrs' to return only the headers. In the latter case also local bounces
return only the headers.
- An alternate and obsolete form of the -f flag.
- Read message for recipients. To:, Cc:, and Bcc: lines will be scanned for
recipient addresses. The Bcc: line will be deleted before
- -V envid
- Set the original envelope id. This is propagated across SMTP to servers
that support DSNs and is returned in DSN-compliant error messages.
- Go into verbose mode. Alias expansions will be announced, etc.
- -X logfile
- Log all traffic in and out of mailers in the indicated log file. This
should only be used as a last resort for debugging mailer bugs. It will
log a lot of data very quickly.
- Stop processing command flags and use the rest of the arguments as
- Use alternate alias file.
- On mailers that are considered ``expensive'' to connect to, don't initiate
immediate connection. This requires queueing.
- Checkpoint the queue file after every N successful deliveries
(default 10). This avoids excessive duplicate deliveries when sending to
long mailing lists interrupted by system crashes.
- Set the delivery mode to x. Delivery modes are `i' for interactive
(synchronous) delivery, `b' for background (asynchronous) delivery, `q'
for queue only - i.e., actual delivery is done the next time the queue is
run, and `d' for deferred - the same as `q' except that database lookups
for maps which have set the -D option (default for the host map) are
- Set error processing to mode x. Valid modes are `m' to mail back
the error message, `w' to ``write'' back the error message (or mail it
back if the sender is not logged in), `p' to print the errors on the
terminal (default), `q' to throw away error messages (only exit status is
returned), and `e' to do special processing for the BerkNet. If the text
of the message is not mailed back by modes `m' or `w' and if the sender is
local to this machine, a copy of the message is appended to the file
dead.letter in the sender's home directory.
- Save UNIX-style From lines at the front of messages.
- The maximum number of times a message is allowed to ``hop'' before we
decide it is in a loop.
- Do not take dots on a line by themselves as a message terminator.
- Send error messages in MIME format. If not set, the DSN (Delivery Status
Notification) SMTP extension is disabled.
- Set connection cache timeout.
- Set connection cache size.
- The log level.
- Don't send to ``me'' (the sender) if I am in an alias expansion.
- Validate the right hand side of aliases during a newaliases(1)
- If set, this message may have old style headers. If not set, this message
is guaranteed to have new style headers (i.e., commas instead of spaces
between addresses). If set, an adaptive algorithm is used that will
correctly determine the header format in most cases.
- Select the directory in which to queue messages.
- Save statistics in the named file.
- Set the timeout on undelivered messages in the queue to the specified
time. After delivery has failed (e.g., because of a host being down) for
this amount of time, failed messages will be returned to the sender. The
default is five days.
- If set, a user database is consulted to get forwarding information. You
can consider this an adjunct to the aliasing mechanism, except that the
database is intended to be distributed; aliases are local to a particular
host. This may not be available if your sendmail does not have the USERDB
option compiled in.
- Fork each job during queue runs. May be convenient on memory-poor
- Strip incoming messages to seven bits.
- Set the handling of eight bit input to seven bit destinations to
mode: m (mimefy) will convert to seven-bit MIME format, p (pass)
will pass it as eight bits (but violates protocols), and s (strict) will
bounce the message.
- Sets how long a job must ferment in the queue between attempts to send
- Sets the default character set used to label 8-bit data that is not
- If opening a connection fails, sleep for sleeptime seconds and try
again. Useful on dial-on-demand sites.
- Set the behaviour when there are no recipient headers (To:, Cc: or Bcc:)
in the message to action: none leaves the message unchanged, add-to
adds a To: header with the envelope recipients, add-apparently-to adds an
Apparently-To: header with the envelope recipients, add-bcc adds an empty
Bcc: header, and add-to-undisclosed adds a header reading `To:
- Sets the maximum number of children that an incoming SMTP daemon will
allow to spawn at any time to N.
- Sets the maximum number of connections per second to the SMTP port to
In aliases, the first character of a name may be a vertical bar to
cause interpretation of the rest of the name as a command to pipe the mail
to. It may be necessary to quote the name to keep sendmail from
suppressing the blanks from between arguments. For example, a common alias
- msgs: "|/usr/bin/msgs -s"
Aliases may also have the syntax ``:include:filename'' to
ask sendmail to read the named file for a list of recipients. For
example, an alias such as:
- poets: ":include:/usr/local/lib/poets.list"
would read /usr/local/lib/poets.list for the list of
addresses making up the group.
Sendmail returns an exit status describing what it did. The
codes are defined in <sysexits.h>:
- Successful completion on all addresses.
- User name not recognized.
- Catchall meaning necessary resources were not available.
- Syntax error in address.
- Internal software error, including bad arguments.
- Temporary operating system error, such as ``cannot fork''.
- Host name not recognized.
- Message could not be sent immediately, but was queued.
If invoked as newaliases, sendmail will rebuild the
alias database. If invoked as mailq, sendmail will print the
contents of the mail queue. If invoked as hoststat, sendmail
will print the persistent host status database. If invoked as
purgestat, sendmail will purge expired entries from the
persistent host status database. If invoked as smtpd, sendmail
will act as a daemon, as if the -bd option were specified.
sendmail often gets blamed for many problems that are actually the result
of other problems, such as overly permissive modes on directories. For this
reason, sendmail checks the modes on system directories and files to
determine if they can be trusted. Although these checks can be turned off and
your system security reduced by setting the DontBlameSendmail option,
the permission problems should be fixed. For more information, see:
Except for the file /etc/mail/sendmail.cf itself the following pathnames
are all specified in /etc/mail/sendmail.cf. Thus, these values are only
mail(1), syslog(3), aliases(5), mailaddr(7), mail.local(8), rc(8), rmail(8)
- raw data for alias names
- data base of alias names
- configuration file
- help file
- collected statistics
- temp files
DARPA Internet Request For Comments RFC819, RFC821,
RFC822. Sendmail Installation and Operation Guide, No. 8,
US Patent Numbers 6865671, 6986037.
The sendmail command appeared in 4.2BSD.
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