spinbox - Create and manipulate spinbox widgets
-activebackground -highlightthickness -repeatinterval
-background -insertbackground -selectbackground
-borderwidth -insertborderwidth -selectborderwidth
-cursor -insertontime -selectforeground
-exportselection -insertwidth -takefocus
-font -insertofftime -textvariable
-foreground -justify -xscrollcommand
See the options
manual entry for details on the standard options.
background color to be used for the spin buttons.
to be used when over the spin buttons. If this is empty (the default), a
default cursor will be used. [-buttondownrelief
The relief to be used for the upper spin
button. [-buttonuprelief buttonUpRelief]
The relief to be used for the lower spin button.
Specifies a Tcl
command to invoke whenever a spinbutton is invoked. The command recognizes
several percent substitutions: %W
for the widget path, %s
the current value of the widget, and %d
for the direction of the button
pressed ( up
Specifies the background color to use when the spinbox is disabled. If this
option is the empty string, the normal background color is used.
Specifies the foreground color to use when the spinbox is disabled. If this
option is the empty string, the normal foreground color is used.
Specifies an alternate
format to use when setting the string value when using the -from
range. This must be a format specifier of the form
, as it will format a floating-point number.
A floating-point value
corresponding to the lowest value for a spinbox, to be used in conjunction
. When all are specified correctly, the
spinbox will use these values to control its contents. This value must be less
than the -to
option. If -values
is specified, it supercedes this
option. [-invalidcommand or -invcmd
Specifies a script to eval when
returns 0. Setting it to an empty string disables this
feature (the default). The best use of this option is to set it to
. See Validation
below for more information.
value specifying the increment. When used with -from
the value in the widget will be adjusted by -increment
when a spin
button is pressed (up adds the value, down subtracts the value).
Specifies the background color to use when the spinbox is readonly. If this
option is the empty string, the normal background color is used.
Specifies one of three
states for the spinbox: normal
, or readonly
the spinbox is readonly, then the value may not be changed using widget
commands and no insertion cursor will be displayed, even if the input focus is
in the widget; the contents of the widget may still be selected. If the
spinbox is disabled, the value may not be changed, no insertion cursor will be
displayed, the contents will not be selectable, and the spinbox may be
displayed in a different color, depending on the values of the
A floating-point value
corresponding to the highest value for the spinbox, to be used in conjunction
. When all are specified correctly, the
spinbox will use these values to control its contents. This value must be
greater than the -from
option. If -values
is specified, it
supercedes this option. [-validate
Specifies the mode in which validation should operate:
. It defaults to none
. When you want validation, you must
explicitly state which mode you wish to use. See Validation
more. [-validatecommand or -vcmd
Specifies a script to evaluate when you want to
validate the input in the widget. Setting it to an empty string disables this
feature (the default). Validation occurs according to the value of
. This command must return a valid Tcl boolean value. If it
returns 0 (or the valid Tcl boolean equivalent) then the value of the widget
will not change and the invalidCommand
will be evaluated if it is set.
If it returns 1, then value will be changed. See Validation
more information. [-values values]
be a proper list value. If specified, the spinbox will use these values as to
control its contents, starting with the first value. This option has
precedence over the -from
Specifies an integer
value indicating the desired width of the spinbox window, in average-size
characters of the widget's font. If the value is less than or equal to zero,
the widget picks a size just large enough to hold its current text.
Must be a proper boolean
value. If on, the spinbox will wrap around the values of data in the widget.
command creates a new window (given by the pathName
argument) and makes it into a spinbox widget. Additional options, described
above, may be specified on the command line or in the option database to
configure aspects of the spinbox such as its colors, font, and relief. The
command returns its pathName
argument. At the time this
command is invoked, there must not exist a window named pathName
's parent must exist.
is an extended entry
widget that allows he user to move,
or spin, through a fixed set of ascending or descending values such as times
or dates in addition to editing the value as in an entry
. When first
created, a spinbox's string is empty. A portion of the spinbox may be selected
as described below. If a spinbox is exporting its selection (see the
option), then it will observe the standard protocols
for handling the selection; spinbox selections are available as type
. Spinboxes also observe the standard Tk rules for dealing with
the input focus. When a spinbox has the input focus it displays an
to indicate where new characters will be inserted.
Spinboxes are capable of displaying strings that are too long to fit entirely
within the widget's window. In this case, only a portion of the string will be
displayed; commands described below may be used to change the view in the
window. Spinboxes use the standard xScrollCommand
interacting with scrollbars (see the description of the xScrollCommand
option for details). They also support scanning, as described below.
Validation works by setting the validateCommand
option to a script which
will be evaluated according to the validate
option as follows:
- Default. This means no validation will occur.
- validateCommand will be called when the spinbox receives or loses
- validateCommand will be called when the spinbox receives
- validateCommand will be called when the spinbox loses focus.
- validateCommand will be called when the spinbox is edited.
- validateCommand will be called for all above conditions.
It is possible to perform percent substitutions on the validateCommand
, just as you would in a bind
following substitutions are recognized:
- Type of action: 1 for insert, 0 for delete, or -1 for focus,
forced or textvariable validation.
- Index of char string to be inserted/deleted, if any, otherwise -1.
- The value of the spinbox should edition occur. If you are configuring the
spinbox widget to have a new textvariable, this will be the value of that
- The current value of spinbox before edition.
- The text string being inserted/deleted, if any. Otherwise it is an empty
- The type of validation currently set.
- The type of validation that triggered the callback (key, focusin,
- The name of the spinbox widget.
In general, the textVariable
can be dangerous
to mix. Any problems have been overcome so that using the
will not interfere with the traditional behavior of the
spinbox widget. Using the textVariable
for read-only purposes will
never cause problems. The danger comes when you try set the
to something that the validateCommand
accept, which causes validate
to become none
will not be triggered). The same happens when an error
occurs evaluating the validateCommand
Primarily, an error will occur when the validateCommand
encounters an error in its script while evaluating or
does not return a valid Tcl boolean value. The
option will also set itself to none
when you edit the
spinbox widget from within either the validateCommand
. Such editions will override the one that was being
validated. If you wish to edit the value of the widget during validation and
still have the validate
option set, you should include the command
in the validateCommand
(whichever one you were
editing the spinbox widget from). It is also recommended to not set an
during validation, as that can cause the
spinbox widget to become out of sync with the textVariable
command creates a new Tcl command whose name is
. This command may be used to invoke various operations on the
widget. It has the following general form:
pathName option ?arg arg ...?
and the arg
s determine the exact behavior of the command.
Many of the widget commands for spinboxes take one or more indices as arguments.
An index specifies a particular character in the spinbox's string, in any of
the following ways:
- Specifies the character as a numerical index, where 0 corresponds to the
first character in the string.
- Indicates the anchor point for the selection, which is set with the
select from and select adjust widget commands.
- Indicates the character just after the last one in the spinbox's string.
This is equivalent to specifying a numerical index equal to the length of
the spinbox's string.
- Indicates the character adjacent to and immediately following the
- Indicates the first character in the selection. It is an error to use this
form if the selection is not in the spinbox window.
- Indicates the character just after the last one in the selection. It is an
error to use this form if the selection is not in the spinbox window.
- In this form, number is treated as an x-coordinate in the spinbox's
window; the character spanning that x-coordinate is used. For example,
“ @0” indicates the left-most character in the
Abbreviations may be used for any of the forms above, e.g. “
” or “ sel.f
”. In general, out-of-range
indices are automatically rounded to the nearest legal value.
The following commands are possible for spinbox widgets:
- pathName bbox index
- Returns a list of four numbers describing the bounding box of the
character given by index. The first two elements of the list give
the x and y coordinates of the upper-left corner of the screen area
covered by the character (in pixels relative to the widget) and the last
two elements give the width and height of the character, in pixels. The
bounding box may refer to a region outside the visible area of the
- pathName cget option
- Returns the current value of the configuration option given by
option. Option may have any of the values accepted by the
- pathName configure ?option? ?value option value
- Query or modify the configuration options of the widget. If no
option is specified, returns a list describing all of the available
options for pathName (see Tk_ConfigureInfo for information
on the format of this list). If option is specified with no
value, then the command returns a list describing the one named
option (this list will be identical to the corresponding sublist of the
value returned if no option is specified). If one or more
option-value pairs are specified, then the command modifies the
given widget option(s) to have the given value(s); in this case the
command returns an empty string. Option may have any of the values
accepted by the spinbox command.
- pathName delete first ?last?
- Delete one or more elements of the spinbox. First is the index of
the first character to delete, and last is the index of the
character just after the last one to delete. If last is not
specified it defaults to first+1, i.e. a single character is
deleted. This command returns an empty string.
- pathName get
- Returns the spinbox's string.
- pathName icursor index
- Arrange for the insertion cursor to be displayed just before the character
given by index. Returns an empty string.
- pathName identify x y
- Returns the name of the window element corresponding to coordinates
x and y in the spinbox. Return value is one of: none,
buttondown, buttonup, entry.
- pathName index index
- Returns the numerical index corresponding to index.
- pathName insert index string
- Insert the characters of string just before the character indicated
by index. Returns an empty string.
- pathName invoke element
- Causes the specified element, either buttondown or buttonup,
to be invoked, triggering the action associated with it.
- pathName scan option args
- This command is used to implement scanning on spinboxes. It has two forms,
depending on option:
- pathName scan mark x
- Records x and the current view in the spinbox window; used in
conjunction with later scan dragto commands. Typically this command
is associated with a mouse button press in the widget. It returns an empty
- pathName scan dragto x
- This command computes the difference between its x argument and the
x argument to the last scan mark command for the widget. It
then adjusts the view left or right by 10 times the difference in
x-coordinates. This command is typically associated with mouse motion
events in the widget, to produce the effect of dragging the spinbox at
high speed through the window. The return value is an empty string.
- pathName selection option arg
- This command is used to adjust the selection within a spinbox. It has
several forms, depending on option:
- pathName selection adjust index
- Locate the end of the selection nearest to the character given by
index, and adjust that end of the selection to be at index
(i.e. including but not going beyond index). The other end of the
selection is made the anchor point for future select to commands.
If the selection is not currently in the spinbox, then a new selection is
created to include the characters between index and the most recent
selection anchor point, inclusive. Returns an empty string.
- pathName selection clear
- Clear the selection if it is currently in this widget. If the selection is
not in this widget then the command has no effect. Returns an empty
- pathName selection element ?element?
- Sets or gets the currently selected element. If a spinbutton element is
specified, it will be displayed depressed.
- pathName selection from index
- Set the selection anchor point to just before the character given by
index. Does not change the selection. Returns an empty string.
- pathName selection present
- Returns 1 if there is are characters selected in the spinbox, 0 if nothing
- pathName selection range start end
- Sets the selection to include the characters starting with the one indexed
by start and ending with the one just before end. If
end refers to the same character as start or an earlier one,
then the spinbox's selection is cleared.
- pathName selection to index
- If index is before the anchor point, set the selection to the
characters from index up to but not including the anchor point. If
index is the same as the anchor point, do nothing. If index
is after the anchor point, set the selection to the characters from the
anchor point up to but not including index. The anchor point is
determined by the most recent select from or select adjust
command in this widget. If the selection is not in this widget then a new
selection is created using the most recent anchor point specified for the
widget. Returns an empty string.
- pathName set ?string?
- If string is specified, the spinbox will try and set it to this
value, otherwise it just returns the spinbox's string. If validation is
on, it will occur when setting the string.
- pathName validate
- This command is used to force an evaluation of the validateCommand
independent of the conditions specified by the validate option.
This is done by temporarily setting the validate option to
all. It returns 0 or 1.
- pathName xview args
- This command is used to query and change the horizontal position of the
text in the widget's window. It can take any of the following forms:
- pathName xview
- Returns a list containing two elements. Each element is a real fraction
between 0 and 1; together they describe the horizontal span that is
visible in the window. For example, if the first element is .2 and the
second element is .6, 20% of the spinbox's text is off-screen to the left,
the middle 40% is visible in the window, and 40% of the text is off-screen
to the right. These are the same values passed to scrollbars via the
- pathName xview index
- Adjusts the view in the window so that the character given by index
is displayed at the left edge of the window.
- pathName xview moveto fraction
- Adjusts the view in the window so that the character fraction of
the way through the text appears at the left edge of the window.
Fraction must be a fraction between 0 and 1.
- pathName xview scroll number what
- This command shifts the view in the window left or right according to
number and what. Number must be an integer.
What must be either units or pages or an abbreviation
of one of these. If what is units, the view adjusts left or
right by number average-width characters on the display; if it is
pages then the view adjusts by number screenfuls. If
number is negative then characters farther to the left become
visible; if it is positive then characters farther to the right become
Tk automatically creates class bindings for spinboxes that give them the
following default behavior. In the descriptions below, “word”
refers to a contiguous group of letters, digits, or “_”
characters, or any single character other than these.
- Clicking mouse button 1 positions the insertion cursor just before the
character underneath the mouse cursor, sets the input focus to this
widget, and clears any selection in the widget. Dragging with mouse button
1 strokes out a selection between the insertion cursor and the character
under the mouse.
- Double-clicking with mouse button 1 selects the word under the mouse and
positions the insertion cursor at the beginning of the word. Dragging
after a double click will stroke out a selection consisting of whole
- Triple-clicking with mouse button 1 selects all of the text in the spinbox
and positions the insertion cursor before the first character.
- The ends of the selection can be adjusted by dragging with mouse button 1
while the Shift key is down; this will adjust the end of the selection
that was nearest to the mouse cursor when button 1 was pressed. If the
button is double-clicked before dragging then the selection will be
adjusted in units of whole words.
- Clicking mouse button 1 with the Control key down will position the
insertion cursor in the spinbox without affecting the selection.
- If any normal printing characters are typed in a spinbox, they are
inserted at the point of the insertion cursor.
- The view in the spinbox can be adjusted by dragging with mouse button 2.
If mouse button 2 is clicked without moving the mouse, the selection is
copied into the spinbox at the position of the mouse cursor.
- If the mouse is dragged out of the spinbox on the left or right sides
while button 1 is pressed, the spinbox will automatically scroll to make
more text visible (if there is more text off-screen on the side where the
mouse left the window).
- The Left and Right keys move the insertion cursor one character to the
left or right; they also clear any selection in the spinbox and set the
selection anchor. If Left or Right is typed with the Shift key down, then
the insertion cursor moves and the selection is extended to include the
new character. Control-Left and Control-Right move the insertion cursor by
words, and Control-Shift-Left and Control-Shift-Right move the insertion
cursor by words and also extend the selection. Control-b and Control-f
behave the same as Left and Right, respectively. Meta-b and Meta-f behave
the same as Control-Left and Control-Right, respectively.
- The Home key, or Control-a, will move the insertion cursor to the
beginning of the spinbox and clear any selection in the spinbox.
Shift-Home moves the insertion cursor to the beginning of the spinbox and
also extends the selection to that point.
- The End key, or Control-e, will move the insertion cursor to the end of
the spinbox and clear any selection in the spinbox. Shift-End moves the
cursor to the end and extends the selection to that point.
- The Select key and Control-Space set the selection anchor to the position
of the insertion cursor. They do not affect the current selection.
Shift-Select and Control-Shift-Space adjust the selection to the current
position of the insertion cursor, selecting from the anchor to the
insertion cursor if there was not any selection previously.
- Control-/ selects all the text in the spinbox.
- Control-\ clears any selection in the spinbox.
- The F16 key (labelled Copy on many Sun workstations) or Meta-w copies the
selection in the widget to the clipboard, if there is a selection.
- The F20 key (labelled Cut on many Sun workstations) or Control-w copies
the selection in the widget to the clipboard and deletes the selection. If
there is no selection in the widget then these keys have no effect.
- The F18 key (labelled Paste on many Sun workstations) or Control-y inserts
the contents of the clipboard at the position of the insertion
- The Delete key deletes the selection, if there is one in the spinbox. If
there is no selection, it deletes the character to the right of the
- The BackSpace key and Control-h delete the selection, if there is one in
the spinbox. If there is no selection, it deletes the character to the
left of the insertion cursor.
- Control-d deletes the character to the right of the insertion cursor.
- Meta-d deletes the word to the right of the insertion cursor.
- Control-k deletes all the characters to the right of the insertion
- Control-t reverses the order of the two characters to the right of the
If the spinbox is disabled using the -state
option, then the spinbox's
view can still be adjusted and text in the spinbox can still be selected, but
no insertion cursor will be displayed and no text modifications will take
The behavior of spinboxes can be changed by defining new bindings for individual
widgets or by redefining the class bindings.
spinbox, entry, widget